Predictors of Vocabulary Outcomes in Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing From Spanish-Speaking Families Purpose The goal of this study was to identify predictors of expressive vocabulary in young Spanish-speaking children who are deaf or hard of hearing living in the United States. Method This cross-sectional study considered 53 children with bilateral hearing loss between 8 and 34 months of age (M ... Research Article
Newly Published
Research Article  |   October 30, 2018
Predictors of Vocabulary Outcomes in Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing From Spanish-Speaking Families
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Beatriz de Diego-Lázaro
    Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe
  • María Adelaida Restrepo
    Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe
  • Allison Lee Sedey
    Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, University of Colorado–Boulder
    Colorado School for the Deaf and the Blind, Colorado Springs
  • Christine Yoshinaga-Itano
    Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, University of Colorado–Boulder
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Beatriz de Diego-Lázaro: bdediego@asu.edu
  • Editor-in-Chief: Krista Wilkinson
    Editor-in-Chief: Krista Wilkinson×
  • Editor: Li Sheng
    Editor: Li Sheng×
Article Information
Development / Hearing Disorders / Cultural & Linguistic Diversity / Newly Published / Research Article
Research Article   |   October 30, 2018
Predictors of Vocabulary Outcomes in Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing From Spanish-Speaking Families
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, Newly Published. doi:10.1044/2018_LSHSS-17-0148
History: Received December 13, 2017 , Revised March 29, 2018 , Accepted July 30, 2018
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, Newly Published. doi:10.1044/2018_LSHSS-17-0148
History: Received December 13, 2017; Revised March 29, 2018; Accepted July 30, 2018

Purpose The goal of this study was to identify predictors of expressive vocabulary in young Spanish-speaking children who are deaf or hard of hearing living in the United States.

Method This cross-sectional study considered 53 children with bilateral hearing loss between 8 and 34 months of age (M = 24, SD = 6.9). Demographic variables, variables related to the hearing loss, and intervention variables were included in a hierarchical regression analysis to predict expressive vocabulary quotients from the MacArthur Inventario del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (Communicative Development Inventories; Jackson-Maldonado et al., 2003).

Results Chronological age, degree of hearing loss, functional hearing ability ratings, age of enrollment in early intervention, and the interaction between chronological age and age of intervention accounted for 61.5% of the vocabulary variance. Children who received intervention by 6 months of age achieved significantly higher vocabulary outcomes than children who started intervention later.

Conclusion The children's mean vocabulary outcomes were below average when compared with hearing peers. This was especially true for older children, children with moderately-severe-to-profound hearing loss, and children who began intervention after 6 months of age. This delay in vocabulary outcomes has the potential to interfere with future reading and academic outcomes.

Acknowledgments
This work has been supported by La Caixa Foundation Fellowship (Spain) and by the Disability Research and Dissemination Center through its grant (5U01DD001007, FAIN No. U01DD001007) from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention awarded to Dr. Yoshinaga-Itano.
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