Orthographic Learning in Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between orthographic learning and language, reading, and cognitive skills in 9-year-old children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) and to compare their performance to age-matched typically hearing (TH) controls. Method Eighteen children diagnosed with ... Research Article
Newly Published
Research Article  |   October 30, 2018
Orthographic Learning in Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Malin Wass
    Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden
  • Teresa Y. C. Ching
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    The HEARing Cooperative Research Centre, Sydney, NSW, Australia
  • Linda Cupples
    Department of Linguistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia
  • Hua-Chen Wang
    Department of Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia
  • Björn Lyxell
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden
  • Louise Martin
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    The HEARing Cooperative Research Centre, Sydney, NSW, Australia
  • Laura Button
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    The HEARing Cooperative Research Centre, Sydney, NSW, Australia
  • Miriam Gunnourie
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    The HEARing Cooperative Research Centre, Sydney, NSW, Australia
  • Isabelle Boisvert
    The HEARing Cooperative Research Centre, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Centre for Implementation of Hearing Research, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia
  • Catherine McMahon
    Department of Linguistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia
  • Anne Castles
    Department of Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Malin Wass: malin.wass@ltu.se
  • Editor-in-Chief: Shelley Gray
    Editor-in-Chief: Shelley Gray×
  • Editor: Patricia Brooks
    Editor: Patricia Brooks×
Article Information
Development / Hearing Disorders / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Newly Published / Research Article
Research Article   |   October 30, 2018
Orthographic Learning in Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, Newly Published. doi:10.1044/2018_LSHSS-17-0146
History: Received December 10, 2017 , Revised March 7, 2018 , Accepted July 9, 2018
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, Newly Published. doi:10.1044/2018_LSHSS-17-0146
History: Received December 10, 2017; Revised March 7, 2018; Accepted July 9, 2018

Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between orthographic learning and language, reading, and cognitive skills in 9-year-old children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) and to compare their performance to age-matched typically hearing (TH) controls.

Method Eighteen children diagnosed with moderate-to-profound hearing loss who use hearing aids and/or cochlear implants participated. Their performance was compared with 35 age-matched controls with typical hearing. Orthographic learning was evaluated using a spelling task and a recognition task. The children were assessed on measures of reading ability, language, working memory, and paired-associate learning.

Results On average, the DHH group performed more poorly than the TH controls on the spelling measure of orthographic learning, but not on the recognition measure. For both groups of children, there were significant correlations between orthographic learning and phonological decoding and between visual–verbal paired-associate learning and orthographic learning.

Conclusions Although the children who are DHH had lower scores in the spelling test of orthographic learning than their TH peers, measures of their reading ability revealed that they acquired orthographic representations successfully. The results are consistent with the self-teaching hypothesis in suggesting that phonological decoding is important for orthographic learning.

Acknowledgments
This project was funded by the Swedish Research Agency for Health, Working Life and Welfare, and the European Commission through a COFAS Marie Curie Fellowship to the first author. The work was carried out as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment study, supported by the National Institute on Deafness and Communication Disorders Award No. R01DC008080. The project was also partly supported by the Commonwealth of Australia through the Office of Hearing Services. We acknowledge the financial support of the HEARing Cooperative Research Centre, established and supported under the Cooperative Research Centres Program of the Australian Government. We are grateful to the pupils, parents, and teachers of the schools that participated in the project. We also thank the researchers and staff at the Department of Cognitive Science and the Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Macquarie University, and the National Acoustic Laboratories for their advice and support during the data collection phase of the project.
Order a Subscription
Pay Per View
Entire Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools content & archive
24-hour access
This Article
24-hour access