From Deficit Remediation to Capacity Building: Learning to Enable Rather Than Disable Students With Dyslexia Purpose In this article, we explore the deficit view of dyslexia and consider how it may narrow research so as to hamper the progress of scientific discovery and constrain best practices to the detriment of the overall well-being and growth of students with dyslexia. We consider the neurodiversity view of ... Tutorial
Tutorial  |   October 24, 2018
From Deficit Remediation to Capacity Building: Learning to Enable Rather Than Disable Students With Dyslexia
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Gabrielle Rappolt-Schlichtmann
    EdTogether, Research & Innovation, Boston, MA
    Harvard Human Development and Psychology, Graduate School of Education, Cambridge, MA
  • Alyssa R. Boucher
    Boston University Speech, Language & Hearing Sciences, MA
  • Miriam Evans
    EdTogether, Research & Innovation, Boston, MA
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Gabrielle Rappolt-Schlichtmann: gschlichtmann@edtogether.org
  • Editor-in-Chief: Tiffany Hogan
    Editor-in-Chief: Tiffany Hogan×
  • Publisher Note: This article is part of the Clinical Forum: Dyslexia.
    Publisher Note: This article is part of the Clinical Forum: Dyslexia.×
Article Information
Language Disorders / Reading & Writing Disorders / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Clinical Forum: Dyslexia / Tutorials
Tutorial   |   October 24, 2018
From Deficit Remediation to Capacity Building: Learning to Enable Rather Than Disable Students With Dyslexia
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, October 2018, Vol. 49, 864-874. doi:10.1044/2018_LSHSS-DYSLC-18-0031
History: Received February 14, 2018 , Revised June 4, 2018 , Accepted June 5, 2018
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, October 2018, Vol. 49, 864-874. doi:10.1044/2018_LSHSS-DYSLC-18-0031
History: Received February 14, 2018; Revised June 4, 2018; Accepted June 5, 2018

Purpose In this article, we explore the deficit view of dyslexia and consider how it may narrow research so as to hamper the progress of scientific discovery and constrain best practices to the detriment of the overall well-being and growth of students with dyslexia. We consider the neurodiversity view of dyslexia as an alternative to the deficit view and explore how strengths-based approaches such as Universal Design for Learning can be used to support the overall well-being and development of students with dyslexia. Practical strategies are provided for applying a strengths-based approach in the speech-language pathologist setting to support students with dyslexia.

Method We completed a focused literature review of the history of the deficit view of dyslexia, the alternate neurodiversity view, exceptional abilities related to dyslexia, and strategies for Universal Design for Learning.

Results Although the research literature that deals with visual-spatial affordances associated with dyslexia is limited, there is significant evidence that a strengths-based approach to learning experience design can be leveraged by practitioners to improve student self-development, motivation, and academic outcomes.

Conclusion We find that further research is needed to explore strengths associated with dyslexia and argue that a shift in mindset from the deficit view toward the neurodiversity view is required to build the capacity of students with dyslexia to thrive in learning and life.

Acknowledgments
The research and development of the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Science Notebook was funded by the Institute of Educations Sciences Grant R324A070130 (CAST, Inc., Principal Investigators: Gabrielle Rappolt-Schlichtmann & Linda De Lucchi), and the Office of Special Education Programs Grant H327S150011 (CAST, Inc., Principal Investigators: Gabrielle Rappolt-Schlichtmann and Tracey Hall). Reference herein to any specific product, process, or service does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the U.S. Government. The views expressed by the authors related to this funded work do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Department of Education. The authors thank their colleagues on the UDL Science Notebook development team including Tracey Hall, Anne Meyer, Linda Butler, Kristin Robinson, Mindy Johnson, Lisa Spitz, Boris Goldowsky, and Kim Ducharme. The authors also thank their partners at the Lawrence Hall of Science, Linda De Lucchi, Brian Campbell, and Larry Malone and Karen Harris of Arizona State University. Finally, and most importantly, the authors thank all of the children, families, and teachers who participated in the research and development efforts around the UDL Science Notebook.
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