Cognitive Neuroscience of Dyslexia Purpose This review summarizes what is known about the structural and functional brain bases of dyslexia. Method We review the current literature on structural and functional brain differences in dyslexia. This includes evidence about differences in gray matter anatomy, white matter connectivity, and functional activations in response to ... Review Article
Review Article  |   October 24, 2018
Cognitive Neuroscience of Dyslexia
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Anila M. D'Mello
    Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge
    McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge
  • John D. E. Gabrieli
    Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge
    McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Publisher Note: This article is part of the Clinical Forum: Dyslexia.
    Publisher Note: This article is part of the Clinical Forum: Dyslexia.×
  • Correspondence to Anila M. D'Mello: admello@mit.edu
  • Editor-in-Chief: Tiffany Hogan
    Editor-in-Chief: Tiffany Hogan×
Article Information
Language Disorders / Reading & Writing Disorders / Clinical Forum: Dyslexia / Tutorials
Review Article   |   October 24, 2018
Cognitive Neuroscience of Dyslexia
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, October 2018, Vol. 49, 798-809. doi:10.1044/2018_LSHSS-DYSLC-18-0020
History: Received January 23, 2018 , Revised April 25, 2018 , Accepted May 8, 2018
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, October 2018, Vol. 49, 798-809. doi:10.1044/2018_LSHSS-DYSLC-18-0020
History: Received January 23, 2018; Revised April 25, 2018; Accepted May 8, 2018

Purpose This review summarizes what is known about the structural and functional brain bases of dyslexia.

Method We review the current literature on structural and functional brain differences in dyslexia. This includes evidence about differences in gray matter anatomy, white matter connectivity, and functional activations in response to print and language. We also summarize findings concerning brain plasticity in response to interventions.

Results We highlight evidence relating brain function and structure to instructional issues such as diagnosis and prognosis. We also highlight evidence about brain differences in early childhood, before formal reading instruction in school, which supports the importance of early identification and intervention.

Conclusion Neuroimaging studies of dyslexia reveal how the disorder is related to differences in structure and function in multiple neural circuits.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (Division of Research on Learning Grant 164450 to John D. E. Gabrieli) and a Simons Center for the Social Brain Postdoctoral Fellowship to Anila M. D'Mello. The authors thank Sara Beach and Gigi Luk for helpful comments on this article.
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