Distributional Cues to Language Learning in Children With Intellectual Disabilities Purpose In typical development, distributional cues—patterns in input—are related to language acquisition processes. Statistical and implicit learning refer to the utilization of such cues. In children with intellectual disability, much less is known about the extent to which distributional cues are harnessed in mechanisms of language learning. Method ... Tutorial
Tutorial  |   August 14, 2018
Distributional Cues to Language Learning in Children With Intellectual Disabilities
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Sara T. Kover
    Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle
  • Disclosure: The author has declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The author has declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Publisher Note: This article is part of the Special Issue: How Statistical Learning Relates to Speech-Language Pathology.
    Publisher Note: This article is part of the Special Issue: How Statistical Learning Relates to Speech-Language Pathology.×
  • Correspondence to Sara T. Kover: skover@uw.edu
  • Editor-in-Chief: Shelley Gray
    Editor-in-Chief: Shelley Gray×
  • Editor: Mary Alt
    Editor: Mary Alt×
Article Information
Development / Special Populations / Genetic & Congenital Disorders / Autism Spectrum / Language Disorders / Social Communication & Pragmatics Disorders / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Special Issue: How Statistical Learning Relates to Speech-Language Pathology / Tutorials
Tutorial   |   August 14, 2018
Distributional Cues to Language Learning in Children With Intellectual Disabilities
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, August 2018, Vol. 49, 653-667. doi:10.1044/2018_LSHSS-STLT1-17-0128
History: Received November 21, 2017 , Revised January 19, 2018 , Accepted March 11, 2018
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, August 2018, Vol. 49, 653-667. doi:10.1044/2018_LSHSS-STLT1-17-0128
History: Received November 21, 2017; Revised January 19, 2018; Accepted March 11, 2018

Purpose In typical development, distributional cues—patterns in input—are related to language acquisition processes. Statistical and implicit learning refer to the utilization of such cues. In children with intellectual disability, much less is known about the extent to which distributional cues are harnessed in mechanisms of language learning.

Method This tutorial presents what is known about the process of language learning in children with language impairments associated with different sources of intellectual disability: Williams syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, Down syndrome, and fragile X syndrome.

Results A broad view is taken on distributional cues relevant to language learning, including statistical learning (e.g., transitional probabilities) and other patterns that support lexical acquisition (e.g., sensitivities to sound patterns, cross-situational word learning) or relate to syntactic development (e.g., nonadjacent dependencies).

Conclusions Critical gaps in the literature are highlighted. Research in this area is especially limited for Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome. Future directions for taking learning theories into account in interventions for children with intellectual disability are discussed, with a focus on the importance of language input.

Acknowledgments
The basis of this work was supported by training during the course of NIDCD F31 DC010959, awarded to Sara T. Kover. Many thanks are due to the families who participated in the research on which this tutorial is based. Helpful comments on an earlier draft of this manuscript were provided by Eun Ae Choi and Courtney Venker.
Order a Subscription
Pay Per View
Entire Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools content & archive
24-hour access
This Article
24-hour access