Evaluating English Morpheme Accuracy, Diversity, and Productivity Measures in Language Samples of Developing Bilinguals Purpose This work explores the clinical relevance of three measures of morpheme use for preschool-age Spanish–English bilingual children with varying language skills. The 3 measures reflect accuracy, diversity (the tense marker total), and productivity (the tense and agreement productivity score [TAP score]) of the English tense and agreement system. ... Research Article
Research Article  |   April 05, 2018
Evaluating English Morpheme Accuracy, Diversity, and Productivity Measures in Language Samples of Developing Bilinguals
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Irina Potapova
    San Diego State University, CA
    University of California, San Diego
  • Sophia Kelly
    San Diego State University, CA
  • Philip N. Combiths
    San Diego State University, CA
    University of California, San Diego
  • Sonja L. Pruitt-Lord
    San Diego State University, CA
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Irina Potapova: ipotapova@sdsu.edu
  • Editor-in-Chief: Shelley Gray
    Editor-in-Chief: Shelley Gray×
  • Editor: Janna Oetting
    Editor: Janna Oetting×
  • Publisher Note: This article is part of the Clinical Forum: Toward Accurate Identification of Developmental Language Disorder Within Linguistically Diverse Schools.
    Publisher Note: This article is part of the Clinical Forum: Toward Accurate Identification of Developmental Language Disorder Within Linguistically Diverse Schools.×
Article Information
Development / Cultural & Linguistic Diversity / Language Disorders / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Clinical Forum: Toward Accurate Identification of Developmental Language Disorder Within Linguistically Diverse Schools / Research Articles
Research Article   |   April 05, 2018
Evaluating English Morpheme Accuracy, Diversity, and Productivity Measures in Language Samples of Developing Bilinguals
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, April 2018, Vol. 49, 260-276. doi:10.1044/2017_LSHSS-17-0026
History: Received March 3, 2017 , Revised August 7, 2017 , Accepted September 28, 2017
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, April 2018, Vol. 49, 260-276. doi:10.1044/2017_LSHSS-17-0026
History: Received March 3, 2017; Revised August 7, 2017; Accepted September 28, 2017
Web of Science® Times Cited: 1

Purpose This work explores the clinical relevance of three measures of morpheme use for preschool-age Spanish–English bilingual children with varying language skills. The 3 measures reflect accuracy, diversity (the tense marker total), and productivity (the tense and agreement productivity score [TAP score]) of the English tense and agreement system.

Method Measures were generated from language samples collected at the beginning and end of the participants' preschool year. Participants included 74 typically developing Spanish–English bilinguals and 19 peers with low language skills. The morpheme measures were evaluated with regard to their relationships with other language sample measures, their ability to reflect group differences, and their potential for capturing morphological development at group and individual levels.

Results Across both groups, the tense marker total and TAP scores were associated with other language measures and demonstrated both group differences and growth over time. The accuracy measure met few of these benchmarks.

Conclusion The tense marker total and TAP score, which were designed to capture emerging morphological abilities, contribute valuable information to a comprehensive language assessment of young bilinguals developing English. Case examples are provided to illustrate the clinical significance of including these measures in assessment.

Acknowledgments
The first and third authors were supported by the Lipinsky Fellowship at San Diego State University. In addition, funding for the project was provided by a National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders RO3 grant (Grant DC012141) and a Price Family Philanthropies research grant awarded to the final author. We would like to thank the participants, their families, and the teachers at Rosa Parks Elementary School. We would also like to thank the members of the Child Language Development, Disorders and Disparities Lab for research assistance and helpful discussions of this work. We extend sincere appreciation to Pamela Hadley for graciously sharing training materials for the tense marker total and the TAP score and for her thoughtful feedback on the current research.
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