Emergent Literacy Skills in Preschool Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language: Initial Findings From the Early Language and Literacy Acquisition (ELLA) Study Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare change in emergent literacy skills of preschool children with and without hearing loss over a 6-month period. Method Participants included 19 children with hearing loss and 14 children with normal hearing. Children with hearing loss used amplification and spoken ... Research Article
Research Article  |   October 05, 2017
Emergent Literacy Skills in Preschool Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language: Initial Findings From the Early Language and Literacy Acquisition (ELLA) Study
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Krystal L. Werfel
    University of South Carolina, Columbia
  • Disclosure: The author has declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The author has declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Krystal L. Werfel: werfel@sc.edu
  • Editor-in-Chief: Shelley Gray
    Editor-in-Chief: Shelley Gray×
  • Editor: Cynthia Puranik
    Editor: Cynthia Puranik×
Article Information
Development / Hearing Disorders / Normal Language Processing / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Research Articles
Research Article   |   October 05, 2017
Emergent Literacy Skills in Preschool Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language: Initial Findings From the Early Language and Literacy Acquisition (ELLA) Study
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, October 2017, Vol. 48, 249-259. doi:10.1044/2017_LSHSS-17-0023
History: Received February 17, 2017 , Revised March 29, 2017 , Accepted July 19, 2017
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, October 2017, Vol. 48, 249-259. doi:10.1044/2017_LSHSS-17-0023
History: Received February 17, 2017; Revised March 29, 2017; Accepted July 19, 2017

Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare change in emergent literacy skills of preschool children with and without hearing loss over a 6-month period.

Method Participants included 19 children with hearing loss and 14 children with normal hearing. Children with hearing loss used amplification and spoken language. Participants completed measures of oral language, phonological processing, and print knowledge twice at a 6-month interval. A series of repeated-measures analyses of variance were used to compare change across groups.

Results Main effects of time were observed for all variables except phonological recoding. Main effects of group were observed for vocabulary, morphosyntax, phonological memory, and concepts of print. Interaction effects were observed for phonological awareness and concepts of print.

Conclusions Children with hearing loss performed more poorly than children with normal hearing on measures of oral language, phonological memory, and conceptual print knowledge. Two interaction effects were present. For phonological awareness and concepts of print, children with hearing loss demonstrated less positive change than children with normal hearing. Although children with hearing loss generally demonstrated a positive growth in emergent literacy skills, their initial performance was lower than that of children with normal hearing, and rates of change were not sufficient to catch up to the peers over time.

Acknowledgments
Research reported in this article was supported by National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Award R03DC014535 (PI: Werfel). Study data were collected and managed using REDCap electronic data capture tools hosted at the University of South Carolina. The content is solely the responsibility of the author and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. Sara G. Straley, Logan Douglass, and Addyson Pound assisted with data collection, scoring, and entry. Their contributions are greatly appreciated.
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