Stimulus Characteristics of Single-Word Tests of Children's Speech Sound Production Purpose This clinical focus article provides readers with a description of the stimulus characteristics of 12 popular tests of speech sound production. Method Using significance testing and descriptive analyses, stimulus items were compared in terms of the number of opportunities for production of all consonant singletons, clusters, and ... Clinical Focus
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Clinical Focus  |   October 05, 2017
Stimulus Characteristics of Single-Word Tests of Children's Speech Sound Production
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Toby Macrae
    School of Communication Science and Disorders, Florida State University, Tallahassee
  • Disclosure: The author has declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The author has declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Toby Macrae: toby.macrae@cci.fsu.edu
  • Editor: Julie Liss
    Editor: Julie Liss×
  • Associate Editor: Kathryn Drager
    Associate Editor: Kathryn Drager×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosody / Clinical Focus
Clinical Focus   |   October 05, 2017
Stimulus Characteristics of Single-Word Tests of Children's Speech Sound Production
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, October 2017, Vol. 48, 219-233. doi:10.1044/2017_LSHSS-16-0050
History: Received June 14, 2016 , Revised November 12, 2016 , Accepted June 1, 2017
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, October 2017, Vol. 48, 219-233. doi:10.1044/2017_LSHSS-16-0050
History: Received June 14, 2016; Revised November 12, 2016; Accepted June 1, 2017

Purpose This clinical focus article provides readers with a description of the stimulus characteristics of 12 popular tests of speech sound production.

Method Using significance testing and descriptive analyses, stimulus items were compared in terms of the number of opportunities for production of all consonant singletons, clusters, and rhotic and nonrhotic vowels of Standard American English; phonetic/phonological and structural complexity; and the presence of bound morphemes.

Results The tests varied widely in terms of the number of opportunities for production of consonant singletons, clusters, and rhotic and nonrhotic vowels. Most of the tests included only 1 opportunity, scored or unscored, to produce a majority of the consonant singletons in each word position. Only 3 of the tests included stimulus items with 3-element clusters. The majority contained limited opportunities to produce 3- or 4-syllable stimulus items. The tests provided sufficient opportunities for production of most vowels, although most did not score vowels. The tests differed significantly in the complexity of their stimulus items. Most, however, contained a negligible number of items that, with the addition of a bound morpheme, resulted in a word-final cluster.

Conclusion Most of the tests elicit an inadequate sample with which to conduct a comprehensive phonological analysis.

Prevalence estimates of speech sound disorders (SSDs) in the general U.S. population range from 15% to 16% in 3-year-old children (Campbell et al., 2003; Shriberg et al., 2005) to 3.8% in 6-year-old children (Shriberg, Tomblin, & McSweeny, 1999). In Australia, the prevalence of SSD has been estimated at 1% in children in grades K–6 (McKinnon, McLeod, & Reilly, 2007). An SSD is a common disorder type in speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') caseloads (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 2011, 2014; Broomfield & Dodd, 2004; Brumbaugh & Smit, 2013; McLeod & Baker, 2014). In the United States, 93% of preschool- and school-based SLPs and 71% of those working with preschool-age children in any setting reported working with children with SSDs, more than any other disorder type (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 2011, 2014). An SSD appears to be just as common in the United Kingdom and Australia (Broomfield & Dodd, 2004; McLeod & Baker, 2014). Given the ubiquitous nature of the disorder, comprehensive assessment of children suspected of having an SSD is a topic of interest to practicing SLPs and researchers and has been the focus of several dedicated journal issues (Beverly, 2016; Curlee, 1993; Fey, 1992; Williams, 2002).
There is not always an agreement about which components to include in a comprehensive assessment of these children (see Podwall & Podwall, 2003; Williams, 2002). Conducting a standardized test of speech sound production is, however, among the most common components used by practicing SLPs. Among SLPs who work with children in the United States, 74% always administer a standardized test, while an additional 15% sometimes administer one (Skahan, Watson, & Lof, 2007). Eighty-nine percent of SLPs who work with children in Australia always administer one (McLeod & Baker, 2014). Administering a standardized test of speech sound production serves a dual purpose. First, it allows the SLP to obtain a percentile rank and standard score to compare the child's performance with that of his or her same-age peers and determine eligibility for services (Khan, 2002). Second, it allows one to identify a child's speech errors, and this may be the SLP's primary reason for administering a test (McLeod & Baker, 2014). Of course, scoring the test requires the SLP to first determine speech errors. Identifying errors required to score the test may be the extent of one's analysis, although some SLPs report conducting additional analyses. This may involve simply analyzing all consonants in all words produced during testing, not just those scored by the test (see Bankson, Bernthal, & Flipsen, 2013; Elbert & Gierut, 1986; Klein, 1984; Macrae, 2016). It may also involve conducting a more comprehensive phonological analysis. For example, 51% of SLPs in the United States always perform a phonological process, or error pattern, 1   analysis, while an additional 34% sometimes perform one (Skahan et al., 2007). In Australia, 76% of SLPs always perform an error pattern analysis, while an additional 22% sometimes perform one (McLeod & Baker, 2014). Elbert and Gierut (1986)  recommended using children's responses to standardized tests of speech sound production to conduct an error pattern analysis or a place–voice–manner (PVM) analysis (see also Macrae, 2016).
Standardized tests differ in the stimulus items they use to elicit word productions from children. These differences mean that each test allows for a unique phonological analysis. SLPs may consider these stimulus characteristics when deciding on a test, including the following: (a) the frequency of occurrence of consonant singletons, consonant clusters, and vowels; (b) the phonetic/phonological and structural complexity of the stimulus items; and (c) the presence of bound morphemes. With regard to frequency of occurrence data, Eisenberg and Hitchcock (2010)  compared popular tests of speech sound production for their adequacy in obtaining a phonetic inventory. These authors reported on the number of consonants and vowels in each of the tests they analyzed that were produced in at least two phonetically controlled words. With regard to consonants, these authors operationally defined phonetically controlled words as those that were monosyllabic or bisyllabic with the consonant in a stressed syllable and that provided a “nonharmonic singleton context” (p. 492). For example, the word cake would be avoided as it contains the same consonant in word-initial and word-final positions. With regard to vowels, the authors operationally defined phonetically controlled words as those that were monosyllabic in which the vowel either occurred in an open syllable (e.g., sh oe ), was followed by a nonliquid consonant (e.g., sh ee p), or occurred in the stressed syllable of a bisyllabic word (e.g., j u mping). They concluded that only 42% of word-initial consonants, 36% of word-final consonants, and 65% of vowels across 11 tests occurred in at least two phonetically controlled words and that “none of the tests are valid as the sole basis for generating a phonetic inventory for consonants or vowels” (p. 496). Kirk and Vigeland (2015)  compared the stimulus items in nine tests to determine their adequacy in evaluating 11 commonly occurring error patterns. The authors found that each test provided at least four opportunities to assess the majority, although not all, of the error patterns.
While the primary purpose of standardized testing is to document the presence or absence of an SSD and determine eligibility for services, a secondary purpose is to obtain a sample for phonetic and/or phonological analysis (Eisenberg & Hitchcock, 2010; Elbert & Gierut, 1986; Kirk & Vigeland, 2015; Macrae, 2016). Whereas a phonetic inventory, a type of independent analysis, might be more appropriate for toddlers or children with immature speech sound systems (Stoel-Gammon, 1987), an error pattern analysis, a type of relational analysis, might be more appropriate for older children or those with more advanced speech sound systems (Bankson et al., 2013). Frequency of occurrence data for consonants and vowels in each test of speech sound production would allow SLPs to choose a test based on the needs of their clients. For example, a test with multiple opportunities to produce fricatives might be chosen to test a child with reported difficulties producing fricatives. These data would also allow SLPs to determine which phonemes need supplemental testing and assist in calculating measures such as percent usage of error patterns, percent consonants correct (Shriberg & Kwiatkowski, 1982) for a particular manner class of consonants (e.g., fricatives) or position-specific consonants, percent vowels correct (Shriberg, Austin, Lewis, McSweeny, & Wilson, 1997), and speech error consistency (e.g., Tyler, Lewis, & Welch, 2003). Information about the proportions of total sounds produced that contribute to a child's score would also be useful. This would allow SLPs to determine how much additional transcription is needed over and above what is required for scoring purposes.
The phonetic/phonological and structural complexity of a word is known to affect its consistency and accuracy of production in young children, such that more complex words are produced less consistently and accurately than less complex words (Macrae, 2013; McLeod & Hewett, 2008; Sosa & Stoel-Gammon, 2012). SLPs might choose tests with less complex stimulus items, including those with early developing sounds and few consonant clusters and syllables, for younger students and those with more severe SSDs. Tests with more complex stimulus items might be preferred for older students or those whose difficulties are only revealed when attempting complex utterances, for example, those containing clusters and/or multiple syllables. Information about the complexity of the tests' stimulus items would allow SLPs to choose a test to suit the needs of their clients.
Another characteristic known to influence production in a large subgroup of children with SSDs—those with co-occurring language impairment (LI; Shriberg & Kwiatkowski, 1994; Shriberg et al., 1999)—is the presence of bound morphemes. Children with LI have particular difficulty producing bound morphemes, for example, plural -s, third-person singular -s, possessive 's, and past tense -ed (Paul, 2001). This difficulty may confound a child's ability to produce a particular phonological structure in a test of speech sound production. If, for example, a child with LI produces past tense kicked as kick in a test, it is difficult to determine if the child's error is morphosyntactic (difficulty marking past tense) or phonological (difficulty producing word-final /kt/) in nature. It seems important to exclude stimulus items that contain bound morphemes from tests of speech sound production, especially when used with children with LI, and SLPs may wish to know which tests contain them and how common they are.
The primary purpose of this study was to supplement earlier studies by Eisenberg and Hitchcock (2010)  and Kirk and Vigeland (2015)  and provide SLPs with a description of the following stimulus characteristics of popular standardized tests of speech sound production: (a) frequency of occurrence data for consonant singletons, consonant clusters, and vowels; (b) phonetic/phonological and structural complexity; and (c) the presence of bound morphemes. A secondary purpose was to determine the adequacy of the tests in providing a sufficient sample with which to conduct a comprehensive phonological analysis. This information will assist SLPs in choosing the appropriate instrument(s) for their clients. It will also assist SLPs who already use a particular test in determining which consonants, consonant clusters, and vowels need supplemental testing.
Method
Tests
The tests of speech sound production chosen for this analysis were the same tests that were examined by other researchers (Eisenberg & Hitchcock, 2010; Flipsen & Ogiela, 2014; Skahan et al., 2007), with the following exceptions: (a) The present analysis did not include the Assessment of Phonological Processes–Revised (Hodson, 1986), the Assessment Link Between Phonology and Articulation (Lowe, 1986), the Fisher–Logemann Test of Articulation Competence (Fisher & Logemann, 1971), and the Templin–Darley Tests of Articulation (Templin & Darley, 1968), because they were published prior to 1990, a cutoff used by Flipsen and Ogiela (2014); (b) the Khan–Lewis Phonological Analysis–Third Edition (Khan & Lewis, 2015) was excluded because its analyses are based on word productions elicited using the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (GFTA-3; Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); (c) the GFTA-2 and GFTA-3 were both included because of the recent publication of the third edition. The following 12 tests were included in the present analysis:
  1. Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (AAPS-3; Fudala, 2000)

  2. Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (BBTOP; Bankson & Bernthal, 1990)

  3. Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (CAAP-2; Secord & Donahue, 2014)

  4. Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (DEAP-A; Dodd, Hua, Crosbie, Holm, & Ozanne, 2006)—Articulation Subtest

  5. Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (DEAP-P; Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest

  6. GFTA-2 (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000)

  7. GFTA-3 (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015)

  8. Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (HAPP-3; Hodson, 2004)

  9. LinguiSystems Articulation Test (LAT; Bowers & Huisingh, 2010)

  10. Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (PAT-3; Lippke, Dickey, Selmar, & Soder, 1997)

  11. Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (SHAPE; Smit & Hand, 1992)

  12. Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (SPAT-DII; Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).

Transcription
Seven of the 12 tests included whole-word transcriptions of all stimulus items. In most cases, a test's own transcription of a stimulus item was used as the basis for all analyses. The goal of this descriptive study was, as much as possible, to describe the tests in their published forms, hence the decision to use their own transcriptions in most cases. There were some exceptions for which an online dictionary's (Dictionary.com) transcription was used. Dictionary.com was used because it is based on the Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, a reputable American English dictionary. The majority of exceptions related to the use of vocalic /ɚ/ instead of postvocalic consonantal /r/. If a test's transcription of a stimulus item used vocalic /ɚ/ when Dictionary.com used postvocalic consonantal /r/, this study used consonantal /r/. Examples included star (transcribed by the BBTOP as /staɚ/ and HAPP-3 as /stɑɚ/), dinosaur (transcribed by the BBTOP as /daɪnəsoɚ/ and the CAAP-2 and LAT as /daɪnəsɔɚ/), yard (transcribed by the BBTOP as /jaɚd/), and horse (transcribed by the HAPP-3 as /hɔɚs/). In addition, vowel transcriptions used by Dictionary.com were preferred over the tests' transcriptions. The majority of disagreements over vowel transcriptions related to the tests' use of /a/ when Dictionary.com used /ɑ/ or its rounded version, /ɒ/ (e.g., watch transcribed as /waʧ/ by the BBTOP and /wɒʧ/ by Dictionary.com, water transcribed as /watɚ/ by the LAT and /wɒtɚ/ by Dictionary.com, and lifeguard transcribed as /laɪfgaɚd/ by the LAT and /laɪfgɑrd/ by Dictionary.com). In these cases, unrounded /ɑ/ was used. If the same stimulus item was included in more than one test but transcribed differently across tests, the transcription used by the majority was used as the transcription in this study (Dictionary.com was used to break ties). Five of the 12 tests did not include whole-word transcriptions of the stimulus items. In these cases, the researcher determined the transcriptions, which were straightforward for most items (e.g., pig = /pɪg/, balloons = /bəlunz/, slide = /slaɪd/). In less clear cases, for example, when deciding whether or not to include /d/ in the transcription of sandwich or whether the vowel in the second syllable of carrots is /ə/ or /ɪ/, and in the cases listed earlier, Dictionary.com was used to determine an item's transcription.
Data Analyses
A comprehensive analysis was conducted of each test's stimulus items and included phonetic/phonological, structural, and grammatical analyses. Only stimulus items that were part of the test's main single-word subtest or analysis were included. Specifically, subtests that assessed connected speech (in the CAAP-2, DEAP-P, GFTA-2, GFTA-3, and SPAT-DII), stimulability (in the DEAP-A, GFTA-2, GFTA-3, and LAT), and childhood apraxia of speech (in the LAT) were excluded. Both the Articulation and Phonology subtests from the DEAP were analyzed. When an item included more than one acceptable response (e.g., steps/stairs in the AAPS-3, jam/jelly in the BBTOP, slide/sled in the HAPP-3, and this/that in the PAT-3), the first response listed in the test was included in the analysis. The only exceptions were the/this and the/them in the BBTOP. In both cases, the second word listed (i.e., this and them, respectively) was included because it is more phonetically/phonologically and structurally complex than the. Stimulus items that included more than one word (e.g., Santa Claus, teddy bear, and thank you) were analyzed as one word. Additionally, the tests were examined for aspects of their scoring procedures and how the different characteristics of their stimulus items contributed to a child's score.
Consonant Coverage
Each test was examined for the total number of occurrences, both scored and unscored, of each of the 24 consonant singletons and two rhotic vowels (/ɝ, ɚ/) of Standard American English (SAE) in initial, medial, and final word positions. Consonant singletons were categorized according to word rather than syllable position because word-medial consonants were common. Vocalic /ɝ/ and /ɚ/ counts were included in the word-medial and word-final consonantal /r/ counts. The proportion of total consonant singletons, consonant clusters, and rhotic vowels sampled that contributed to a child's score was also calculated for each test.
Vowel Coverage
Each test was examined for the total number of occurrences, both scored and unscored, of each of the following 17 vowels of SAE: five front vowels (/i, ɪ, e, ɛ, æ/), five back vowels (/u, ʊ, o, ɔ, ɑ/), four central vowels (/ʌ, ə, ɝ, ɚ/), and three diphthongs (/aɪ, aʊ, ɔɪ/). Both stressed and unstressed versions of the vowels were included in the count. Diphthongs /eɪ/ and /oʊ/ were included in the counts of their monophthong equivalents (/e/ and /o/, respectively). In addition, the tests were compared for whether or not nonrhotic and/or rhotic vowel errors contributed to a child's standard score.
Complexity
Stoel-Gammon's (2010)  Word Complexity Measure (WCM) was used as a summary measure of phonetic/phonological and structural complexity for each stimulus item. WCM is an ordinal-level score based on the number of syllables, syllable structures, stress patterns, consonant clusters, and sound classes within a word. Higher WCM scores are associated with the following features: more than two syllables, stress on any syllable but the first, a word-final consonant, consonant clusters, velars, fricatives, affricates, liquids, and rhotic vowels. For example, the word screwdriver received 1 point for containing more than two syllables, 1 point for each of two consonant clusters, 1 point for a velar consonant, 1 point for each of two liquids, 1 point for a rhotic vowel, 1 point for each of two fricatives, and 1 additional point for a voiced fricative, resulting in a WCM score of 10. The word bed received only 1 point for containing a word-final consonant, resulting in a WCM score of 1.
The number of consonant clusters in each stimulus item, a second measure of complexity, was tallied for each test. A consonant cluster was defined as two or more adjacent consonants within a syllable. In addition, each test was examined for the total number of occurrences, both scored and unscored, of /s/ or /z/, /r/, /l/, nasal, and glide clusters in syllable-initial and syllable-final positions. Word-medial clusters were categorized as either syllable-initial or syllable-final because of their relative scarcity. While some of the tests categorize word-medial consonant singletons and clusters as such, others categorize them as either syllable-initial or syllable-final. Analyzing singletons and clusters according to syllable position may reveal error patterns not seen when analyzing according to word position. Syllable-final clusters containing /z/ (e.g., balloons) were combined with syllable-final /s/ clusters. If a cluster contained more than one phoneme of interest, it was included in the count for each phoneme. For example, the syllable-initial /sl/ cluster in sled was included in both the /s/ cluster and /l/ cluster counts.
The number of syllables in each stimulus item, a third measure of complexity, was tallied for each test. For stimulus items that contained more than one word, the total number of syllables across all words was counted.
Bound Morphemes
Each test was examined for the number of words with bound grammatical morphemes; the number of morphemes that, when added to a stimulus item, resulted in a word-final cluster; and the number of morphemes that were scored by the test.
Statistical Analyses
Significance testing was used to compare the tests in terms of the complexity of their stimulus items. WCM, an ordinal-level score, was compared across the tests using a Kruskall–Wallis nonparametric one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The groups failed Levene's test of homogeneity of variances (p < .05) and were therefore compared using mean ranks rather than medians. All other data were analyzed descriptively. Descriptive analyses were used to compare the tests in terms of the number of clusters and syllables within their stimulus items because of the restricted range of the data across the tests (zero to two clusters and one to four syllables). Descriptive analyses were also used to provide readers with a tally of the number of opportunities for production of all consonant singletons, different types of consonant clusters, and rhotic and nonrhotic vowels of SAE. Differences among the tests in the number of stimulus items containing bound grammatical morphemes, whether vowel errors contributed to a child's standard score, and in the proportion of scored consonants were also described.
Results
Consonant Coverage
The numbers of each type of scored and unscored consonant singleton and two rhotic vowels (/ɝ, ɚ/) of SAE are presented for each test according to word-initial, word-medial, and word-final positions and totaled across all positions, in Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The phonemes are grouped according to manner of articulation. For two of the tests (DEAP-A and GFTA-3), the examiner is required to transcribe all sounds in order to calculate a score. In other words, these tests require no additional transcription over and above what is required to calculate a score to analyze all speech sounds elicited by the test. All other tests require additional transcription. The number of scored and unscored singletons, clusters, and rhotic vowels and the proportion of total sounds that were scored are presented for each test in Figure 1. The tests are rank ordered from top to bottom according to the total number of sounds in the test (fewest to most). The DEAP-A contained the fewest sounds (n = 64), whereas the PAT-3 contained the most (n = 190). The test with the most sounds, the PAT-3, was also the test with the lowest proportion of scored consonants. Only 42% of its sounds were scored. All other tests scored 50% or more of their consonant singletons, clusters, and rhotic vowels.
Table 1. Number of occurrences of each word-initial consonant singleton of Standard American English in each test.
Number of occurrences of each word-initial consonant singleton of Standard American English in each test.×
Test Stop
Nasal
Fricative
Affricate
Glide
Liquid
Total
p b t d k g m n f v θ ð s z ʃ h ʧ ʤ w j l r
AAPS-3 1 5 3 1 7 0 2 4 2 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 40
BBTOP 3 7 3 5 9 3 4 2 3 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 68
CAAP-2 1 3 1 2 3 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 3 2 35
DEAP-A 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 27
DEAP-P 1 3 4 1 1 0 1 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 1 29
GFTA-2 2 5 1 1 3 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 2 36
GFTA-3 3 1 4 2 2 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 42
HAPP-3 1 2 2 0 2 1 2 1 3 1 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 28
LAT 4 4 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 3 2 35
PAT-3 3 11 5 1 8 1 3 2 3 1 2 1 3 1 1 5 1 1 2 1 2 1 59
SHAPE 1 6 1 3 6 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 43
SPAT-DII 3 3 2 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 33
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
Table 1. Number of occurrences of each word-initial consonant singleton of Standard American English in each test.
Number of occurrences of each word-initial consonant singleton of Standard American English in each test.×
Test Stop
Nasal
Fricative
Affricate
Glide
Liquid
Total
p b t d k g m n f v θ ð s z ʃ h ʧ ʤ w j l r
AAPS-3 1 5 3 1 7 0 2 4 2 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 40
BBTOP 3 7 3 5 9 3 4 2 3 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 68
CAAP-2 1 3 1 2 3 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 3 2 35
DEAP-A 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 27
DEAP-P 1 3 4 1 1 0 1 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 1 29
GFTA-2 2 5 1 1 3 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 2 36
GFTA-3 3 1 4 2 2 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 42
HAPP-3 1 2 2 0 2 1 2 1 3 1 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 28
LAT 4 4 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 3 2 35
PAT-3 3 11 5 1 8 1 3 2 3 1 2 1 3 1 1 5 1 1 2 1 2 1 59
SHAPE 1 6 1 3 6 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 43
SPAT-DII 3 3 2 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 33
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
×
Table 2. Number of occurrences of each word-medial consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.
Number of occurrences of each word-medial consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.×
Test Stop
Nasal
Fricative
Affricate
Glide
Liquid
Total
p b t d k g m n ŋ f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h ʧ ʤ w j l r/ɝ/ɚ
AAPS-3 1 2 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 16
BBTOP 1 1 4 2 0 2 1 3 1 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 4 30
CAAP-2 2 1 4 0 2 1 4 3 1 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 2 28
DEAP-A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 7
DEAP-P 2 2 3 1 3 1 2 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 4 4 34
GFTA-2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 3 5 36
GFTA-3 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 1 2 1 2 0 1 2 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 1 2 1 31
HAPP-3 0 2 0 1 2 0 1 1 1 0 2 1 1 3 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 2 0 23
LAT 1 3 7 1 2 2 1 2 1 3 1 0 0 2 3 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 3 6 43
PAT-3 2 1 3 2 3 1 1 4 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 2 3 2 7 45
SHAPE 2 1 1 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 14
SPAT-DII 1 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 0 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 2 29
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
Table 2. Number of occurrences of each word-medial consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.
Number of occurrences of each word-medial consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.×
Test Stop
Nasal
Fricative
Affricate
Glide
Liquid
Total
p b t d k g m n ŋ f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h ʧ ʤ w j l r/ɝ/ɚ
AAPS-3 1 2 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 16
BBTOP 1 1 4 2 0 2 1 3 1 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 4 30
CAAP-2 2 1 4 0 2 1 4 3 1 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 2 28
DEAP-A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 7
DEAP-P 2 2 3 1 3 1 2 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 4 4 34
GFTA-2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 3 5 36
GFTA-3 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 1 2 1 2 0 1 2 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 1 2 1 31
HAPP-3 0 2 0 1 2 0 1 1 1 0 2 1 1 3 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 2 0 23
LAT 1 3 7 1 2 2 1 2 1 3 1 0 0 2 3 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 3 6 43
PAT-3 2 1 3 2 3 1 1 4 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 2 3 2 7 45
SHAPE 2 1 1 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 14
SPAT-DII 1 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 0 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 2 29
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
×
Table 3. Number of occurrences of each word-final consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.
Number of occurrences of each word-final consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.×
Test Stop
Nasal
Fricative
Affricate
Liquid
Total
p b t d k g m n ŋ f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʧ ʤ l r/ɝ/ɚ
AAPS-3 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 8 1 1 1 1 0 2 2 1 0 1 0 2 5 35
BBTOP 4 2 9 3 4 3 3 10 0 2 2 2 0 2 3 2 0 3 3 1 7 65
CAAP-2 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 4 7 41
DEAP-A 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 2 3 25
DEAP-P 1 2 2 1 3 3 0 4 2 2 1 1 0 2 1 2 0 2 0 2 5 36
GFTA-2 1 1 2 1 2 1 3 6 5 1 1 1 0 2 6 1 0 1 1 3 5 44
GFTA-3 2 1 2 2 3 2 3 4 3 3 1 1 0 3 3 1 0 1 0 5 10 50
HAPP-3 2 0 2 1 5 0 2 5 3 1 1 1 0 1 2 2 0 1 1 1 7 38
LAT 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 5 3 1 1 1 0 2 3 1 0 1 1 7 9 44
PAT-3 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 1 1 1 1 1 3 8 3 1 2 1 3 8 55
SHAPE 5 1 5 4 7 4 3 8 4 1 1 1 0 5 2 2 0 1 2 3 10 69
SPAT-DII 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 3 1 1 1 0 3 6 2 0 1 1 3 4 38
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
Table 3. Number of occurrences of each word-final consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.
Number of occurrences of each word-final consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.×
Test Stop
Nasal
Fricative
Affricate
Liquid
Total
p b t d k g m n ŋ f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʧ ʤ l r/ɝ/ɚ
AAPS-3 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 8 1 1 1 1 0 2 2 1 0 1 0 2 5 35
BBTOP 4 2 9 3 4 3 3 10 0 2 2 2 0 2 3 2 0 3 3 1 7 65
CAAP-2 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 4 7 41
DEAP-A 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 2 3 25
DEAP-P 1 2 2 1 3 3 0 4 2 2 1 1 0 2 1 2 0 2 0 2 5 36
GFTA-2 1 1 2 1 2 1 3 6 5 1 1 1 0 2 6 1 0 1 1 3 5 44
GFTA-3 2 1 2 2 3 2 3 4 3 3 1 1 0 3 3 1 0 1 0 5 10 50
HAPP-3 2 0 2 1 5 0 2 5 3 1 1 1 0 1 2 2 0 1 1 1 7 38
LAT 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 5 3 1 1 1 0 2 3 1 0 1 1 7 9 44
PAT-3 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 1 1 1 1 1 3 8 3 1 2 1 3 8 55
SHAPE 5 1 5 4 7 4 3 8 4 1 1 1 0 5 2 2 0 1 2 3 10 69
SPAT-DII 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 3 1 1 1 0 3 6 2 0 1 1 3 4 38
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
×
Table 4. Total number of occurrences of each consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.
Total number of occurrences of each consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.×
Test Stop
Nasal
Fricative
Affricate
Glide
Liquid
Total
p b t d k g m n ŋ f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h ʧ ʤ w j l r/ɝ/ɚ
AAPS-3 3 8 4 4 9 3 4 12 2 3 2 3 1 3 3 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 5 11 91
BBTOP 8 10 16 10 13 8 8 15 1 6 4 3 4 6 5 4 0 2 5 5 2 4 9 15 163
CAAP-2 4 5 6 4 7 5 7 6 4 5 3 3 2 6 2 2 1 4 2 3 2 2 8 11 104
DEAP-A 2 4 3 2 3 2 3 4 1 4 3 2 1 3 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 5 7 59
DEAP-P 4 7 9 3 7 4 3 5 3 6 2 3 2 5 4 4 0 2 3 1 3 2 7 10 99
GFTA-2 4 7 4 3 7 4 6 11 7 6 3 3 2 5 8 3 0 1 3 3 5 2 7 12 116
GFTA-3 6 4 8 5 8 6 6 6 5 7 5 2 2 7 6 4 0 2 4 4 2 2 9 13 123
HAPP-3 3 4 4 2 9 1 5 7 4 4 4 3 1 5 4 3 1 3 2 2 2 4 4 8 89
LAT 6 8 10 3 6 4 4 8 4 6 3 2 0 5 7 3 0 2 3 3 3 2 13 17 122
PAT-3 6 13 10 5 14 5 8 11 4 5 3 5 3 7 10 5 2 5 4 3 4 4 7 16 159
SHAPE 8 8 7 9 13 6 4 12 4 2 2 3 1 7 4 4 0 2 3 3 2 2 6 14 126
SPAT-DII 5 5 4 4 8 3 6 6 3 4 3 4 2 5 8 5 0 1 2 3 2 2 8 7 100
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
Table 4. Total number of occurrences of each consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.
Total number of occurrences of each consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.×
Test Stop
Nasal
Fricative
Affricate
Glide
Liquid
Total
p b t d k g m n ŋ f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h ʧ ʤ w j l r/ɝ/ɚ
AAPS-3 3 8 4 4 9 3 4 12 2 3 2 3 1 3 3 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 5 11 91
BBTOP 8 10 16 10 13 8 8 15 1 6 4 3 4 6 5 4 0 2 5 5 2 4 9 15 163
CAAP-2 4 5 6 4 7 5 7 6 4 5 3 3 2 6 2 2 1 4 2 3 2 2 8 11 104
DEAP-A 2 4 3 2 3 2 3 4 1 4 3 2 1 3 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 5 7 59
DEAP-P 4 7 9 3 7 4 3 5 3 6 2 3 2 5 4 4 0 2 3 1 3 2 7 10 99
GFTA-2 4 7 4 3 7 4 6 11 7 6 3 3 2 5 8 3 0 1 3 3 5 2 7 12 116
GFTA-3 6 4 8 5 8 6 6 6 5 7 5 2 2 7 6 4 0 2 4 4 2 2 9 13 123
HAPP-3 3 4 4 2 9 1 5 7 4 4 4 3 1 5 4 3 1 3 2 2 2 4 4 8 89
LAT 6 8 10 3 6 4 4 8 4 6 3 2 0 5 7 3 0 2 3 3 3 2 13 17 122
PAT-3 6 13 10 5 14 5 8 11 4 5 3 5 3 7 10 5 2 5 4 3 4 4 7 16 159
SHAPE 8 8 7 9 13 6 4 12 4 2 2 3 1 7 4 4 0 2 3 3 2 2 6 14 126
SPAT-DII 5 5 4 4 8 3 6 6 3 4 3 4 2 5 8 5 0 1 2 3 2 2 8 7 100
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
×
Figure 1.

Total number of scored and unscored consonant singletons, clusters, and rhotic vowels and percentage of total sounds that are scored for each test. DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition, Articulation Subtest; AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition; SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry; CAAP = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology; HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition, Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition; LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test; GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition; SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation; BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology; PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition.

 Total number of scored and unscored consonant singletons, clusters, and rhotic vowels and percentage of total sounds that are scored for each test. DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition, Articulation Subtest; AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition; SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry; CAAP = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology; HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition, Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition; LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test; GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition; SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation; BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology; PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition.
Figure 1.

Total number of scored and unscored consonant singletons, clusters, and rhotic vowels and percentage of total sounds that are scored for each test. DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition, Articulation Subtest; AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition; SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry; CAAP = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology; HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition, Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition; LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test; GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition; SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation; BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology; PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition.

×
Vowel Coverage
The total number of occurrences, both scored and unscored, of each of the five front vowels, five back vowels, four central vowels (including the two rhotic vowels), and three diphthongs of SAE, is presented for each test in Table 5. In addition, the tests were examined for whether or not nonrhotic and/or rhotic vowel errors contributed to a child's standard score. This information is also presented in Table 5. Three of the tests scored productions of both nonrhotic and rhotic vowels. Six of the tests scored productions of rhotic vowels only. Three of the tests did not score any vowel productions.
Table 5. Number of occurrences of each monophthong and diphthong vowel of Standard American English in each test and the contribution of vowel errors to test standardized scores.
Number of occurrences of each monophthong and diphthong vowel of Standard American English in each test and the contribution of vowel errors to test standardized scores.×
Test Vowel
Total
Front
Back
Central
Diphthong
i ɪ e ɛ æ u ʊ o ɔ ɑ ʌ ə ɝ ɚ ɔɪ
AAPS-3 a 4 8 5 6 5 1 1 5 4 2 6 5 1 5 2 1 0 61
BBTOP b 7 8 9 10 15 4 1 9 3 4 11 11 1 6 6 4 0 109
CAAP-2 b 5 9 7 7 4 3 0 2 3 5 2 6 0 7 3 3 0 66
DEAP-A a 3 6 1 4 3 1 1 2 2 3 1 3 2 0 2 1 1 36
DEAP-P b 7 12 3 11 9 3 1 2 3 2 5 10 0 7 5 1 1 82
GFTA-2 c 3 16 1 5 11 4 0 3 3 4 8 10 1 6 4 3 0 82
GFTA-3 b 8 8 2 8 8 5 1 3 2 3 10 15 0 7 6 2 1 89
HAPP-3 c 4 10 5 4 7 6 0 7 2 5 6 2 0 6 3 4 1 72
LAT b 8 6 7 8 3 2 1 4 3 4 8 10 3 11 5 4 0 87
PAT-3 a 7 8 13 9 18 6 1 3 4 6 8 14 1 10 2 2 1 113
SHAPE b 6 13 11 10 10 3 0 7 4 9 9 6 0 12 4 2 0 106
SPAT-DII c 9 7 2 8 9 4 1 5 1 2 9 10 0 4 0 1 0 72
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Nonrhotic and rhotic vowels contribute to the standard score.
Nonrhotic and rhotic vowels contribute to the standard score.×
b Rhotic vowels contribute to the standard score.
Rhotic vowels contribute to the standard score.×
c Vowels do not contribute to the standard score.
Vowels do not contribute to the standard score.×
Table 5. Number of occurrences of each monophthong and diphthong vowel of Standard American English in each test and the contribution of vowel errors to test standardized scores.
Number of occurrences of each monophthong and diphthong vowel of Standard American English in each test and the contribution of vowel errors to test standardized scores.×
Test Vowel
Total
Front
Back
Central
Diphthong
i ɪ e ɛ æ u ʊ o ɔ ɑ ʌ ə ɝ ɚ ɔɪ
AAPS-3 a 4 8 5 6 5 1 1 5 4 2 6 5 1 5 2 1 0 61
BBTOP b 7 8 9 10 15 4 1 9 3 4 11 11 1 6 6 4 0 109
CAAP-2 b 5 9 7 7 4 3 0 2 3 5 2 6 0 7 3 3 0 66
DEAP-A a 3 6 1 4 3 1 1 2 2 3 1 3 2 0 2 1 1 36
DEAP-P b 7 12 3 11 9 3 1 2 3 2 5 10 0 7 5 1 1 82
GFTA-2 c 3 16 1 5 11 4 0 3 3 4 8 10 1 6 4 3 0 82
GFTA-3 b 8 8 2 8 8 5 1 3 2 3 10 15 0 7 6 2 1 89
HAPP-3 c 4 10 5 4 7 6 0 7 2 5 6 2 0 6 3 4 1 72
LAT b 8 6 7 8 3 2 1 4 3 4 8 10 3 11 5 4 0 87
PAT-3 a 7 8 13 9 18 6 1 3 4 6 8 14 1 10 2 2 1 113
SHAPE b 6 13 11 10 10 3 0 7 4 9 9 6 0 12 4 2 0 106
SPAT-DII c 9 7 2 8 9 4 1 5 1 2 9 10 0 4 0 1 0 72
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Nonrhotic and rhotic vowels contribute to the standard score.
Nonrhotic and rhotic vowels contribute to the standard score.×
b Rhotic vowels contribute to the standard score.
Rhotic vowels contribute to the standard score.×
c Vowels do not contribute to the standard score.
Vowels do not contribute to the standard score.×
×
Complexity
The Kruskall–Wallis ANOVA yielded a significant result, χ2(11) = 21.06, p = .033, indicating that the tests differed in the phonetic/phonological and structural complexity of their stimulus items. The rank ordering of the tests by the complexity of their stimulus items is presented in Table 6, along with their mean rank scores. The HAPP-3 contained the most complex stimulus items, whereas the AAPS-3 contained the least complex stimulus items.
Table 6. Rank ordering of tests by mean ranks for word complexity, mean number of clusters per stimulus item, and mean number of syllables per stimulus item.
Rank ordering of tests by mean ranks for word complexity, mean number of clusters per stimulus item, and mean number of syllables per stimulus item.×
Order Test WCM Test Clusters Test Syllables
1 HAPP-3 399.45 HAPP-3 0.66 LAT 1.62
2 GFTA-2 367.40 DEAP-P 0.48 DEAP-P 1.60
3 CAAP-2 360.30 SHAPE 0.43 SPAT-DII 1.58
4 LAT 357.88 GFTA-2 0.42 GFTA-2 1.55
5 PAT-3 347.71 PAT-3 0.41 CAAP-2 1.50
6 DEAP-P 347.64 LAT 0.37 PAT-3 1.47
7 SPAT-DII 344.30 SPAT-DII 0.33 GFTA-3 1.47
8 GFTA-3 321.67 AAPS-3 0.33 HAPP-3 1.44
9 SHAPE 313.43 GFTA-3 0.30 BBTOP 1.38
10 BBTOP 294.26 BBTOP 0.26 AAPS-3 1.30
11 DEAP-A 283.20 CAAP-2 0.25 SHAPE 1.23
12 AAPS-3 279.22 DEAP-A 0.17 DEAP-A 1.20
Note. WCM = Word Complexity Measure; HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest.
Note. WCM = Word Complexity Measure; HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest.×
Table 6. Rank ordering of tests by mean ranks for word complexity, mean number of clusters per stimulus item, and mean number of syllables per stimulus item.
Rank ordering of tests by mean ranks for word complexity, mean number of clusters per stimulus item, and mean number of syllables per stimulus item.×
Order Test WCM Test Clusters Test Syllables
1 HAPP-3 399.45 HAPP-3 0.66 LAT 1.62
2 GFTA-2 367.40 DEAP-P 0.48 DEAP-P 1.60
3 CAAP-2 360.30 SHAPE 0.43 SPAT-DII 1.58
4 LAT 357.88 GFTA-2 0.42 GFTA-2 1.55
5 PAT-3 347.71 PAT-3 0.41 CAAP-2 1.50
6 DEAP-P 347.64 LAT 0.37 PAT-3 1.47
7 SPAT-DII 344.30 SPAT-DII 0.33 GFTA-3 1.47
8 GFTA-3 321.67 AAPS-3 0.33 HAPP-3 1.44
9 SHAPE 313.43 GFTA-3 0.30 BBTOP 1.38
10 BBTOP 294.26 BBTOP 0.26 AAPS-3 1.30
11 DEAP-A 283.20 CAAP-2 0.25 SHAPE 1.23
12 AAPS-3 279.22 DEAP-A 0.17 DEAP-A 1.20
Note. WCM = Word Complexity Measure; HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest.
Note. WCM = Word Complexity Measure; HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest.×
×
Only 18 of the total 667 stimulus items across all tests (2.7%) contained two clusters. All other stimulus items contained either zero or one cluster. The number of stimulus items in each test containing zero, one, and two clusters and the total number of clusters across all stimulus items in each test are presented in Table 7. The SHAPE contained the most consonant clusters across all stimulus items. The rank ordering of the tests by the mean number of clusters in each stimulus item is included in Table 6. The HAPP-3 contained the highest mean number of clusters per stimulus item, whereas the DEAP-A contained the lowest. In addition, the total number of each type of scored and unscored syllable-initial and syllable-final consonant cluster in each test is presented in Tables 8 and 9, respectively. The clusters are grouped according to the type of cluster. The SHAPE contained the most syllable-initial clusters, whereas the PAT-3 contained the most syllable-final clusters. Only three of the tests contained stimulus items with three-element clusters: the DEAP-P (n = 3), the HAPP-3 (n = 3), and the SHAPE (n = 5).
Table 7. Number of stimulus items containing zero, one, and two consonant clusters and total number of consonant clusters across all stimulus items in each test.
Number of stimulus items containing zero, one, and two consonant clusters and total number of consonant clusters across all stimulus items in each test.×
Test 0 1 2 Total clusters
AAPS-3 32 12 1 14
BBTOP 59 20 0 20
CAAP-2 33 11 0 11
DEAP-A 25 5 0 5
DEAP-P 28 20 2 24
GFTA-2 32 20 1 22
GFTA-3 42 18 0 18
HAPP-3 22 24 5 34
LAT 34 17 1 19
PAT-3 49 23 4 31
SHAPE a 49 29 3 35
SPAT-DII 31 13 1 15
Note. The first three columns report the number of stimulus items that contain zero, one, and two clusters. No stimulus items contain three clusters. Total clusters refer to the total number of clusters across all stimulus items. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. The first three columns report the number of stimulus items that contain zero, one, and two clusters. No stimulus items contain three clusters. Total clusters refer to the total number of clusters across all stimulus items. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Contains the most consonant clusters.
Contains the most consonant clusters.×
Table 7. Number of stimulus items containing zero, one, and two consonant clusters and total number of consonant clusters across all stimulus items in each test.
Number of stimulus items containing zero, one, and two consonant clusters and total number of consonant clusters across all stimulus items in each test.×
Test 0 1 2 Total clusters
AAPS-3 32 12 1 14
BBTOP 59 20 0 20
CAAP-2 33 11 0 11
DEAP-A 25 5 0 5
DEAP-P 28 20 2 24
GFTA-2 32 20 1 22
GFTA-3 42 18 0 18
HAPP-3 22 24 5 34
LAT 34 17 1 19
PAT-3 49 23 4 31
SHAPE a 49 29 3 35
SPAT-DII 31 13 1 15
Note. The first three columns report the number of stimulus items that contain zero, one, and two clusters. No stimulus items contain three clusters. Total clusters refer to the total number of clusters across all stimulus items. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. The first three columns report the number of stimulus items that contain zero, one, and two clusters. No stimulus items contain three clusters. Total clusters refer to the total number of clusters across all stimulus items. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Contains the most consonant clusters.
Contains the most consonant clusters.×
×
Table 8. Numbers and types of syllable-initial consonant clusters in each test.
Numbers and types of syllable-initial consonant clusters in each test.×
Test /s/ /r/ /l/ Glide Nasal Total
AAPS-3 st(2) tr(2), gr pl 6
BBTOP sn, st(2), sk, sl br(2), tr, kr(2) kl(2), fl(2), sl sn 14
CAAP-2 sn, sw, sk br, tr, gr kl, gl, fl pj, sw sn 10
DEAP-A sn br, kr sn 3
DEAP-P a sn, sw, sp, sk, skw, spl, str pr, br(4), tr, kr, fr, θr, str gl, spl kw, sw, skw sn 18
GFTA-2 sw, sp, st, sl br, tr, dr, kr, gr, fr pl, bl, kl, gl, fl, sl kw, sw 16
GFTA-3 sw, sp, st, sl pr, br(3), tr, dr, kr, gr, fr pl, bl, gl, sl kw, sw 17
HAPP-3 a sm, sn, sw, sp, st, sl, skw, str, skr br, tr, dr, kr, gr, θr, str, skr pl, bl, kl, gl(2), fl, sl mj, kw, kj, sw, skw mj, sm, sn 24
LAT sm, st, sk pr, br(3), tr, dr, kr, gr, fr pl, bl, kl, gl, fl sm 17
PAT-3 sw, sp, st(2), sk br(2), tr, kr(2) bl, kl, gl, fl(2) sw 15
SHAPE a , b sm, sn(2), sw, sp(2), st, sk, sl, spl, spr, str, skw, skr pr, br(2), tr, dr, kr, gr, fr, θr, spr, str, skr pl, bl, kl(2), gl(2), fl, sl, spl tw, kw, sw, skw sm, sn (2) 32
SPAT-DII sn, sw, st, sl br(3), tr, dr, kr bl, fl, sl sw sn 12
Note. Clusters are included in more than one column if they represent more than one type (e.g., /sl/ is included in both /s/ and /l/ columns). Total reflects the total number of clusters in each test (e.g., while included in both /s/ and /l/ columns, /sl/ is counted only once). AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. Clusters are included in more than one column if they represent more than one type (e.g., /sl/ is included in both /s/ and /l/ columns). Total reflects the total number of clusters in each test (e.g., while included in both /s/ and /l/ columns, /sl/ is counted only once). AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Contains three-element consonant clusters.
Contains three-element consonant clusters.×
b Contains the most syllable-initial consonant clusters.
Contains the most syllable-initial consonant clusters.×
Table 8. Numbers and types of syllable-initial consonant clusters in each test.
Numbers and types of syllable-initial consonant clusters in each test.×
Test /s/ /r/ /l/ Glide Nasal Total
AAPS-3 st(2) tr(2), gr pl 6
BBTOP sn, st(2), sk, sl br(2), tr, kr(2) kl(2), fl(2), sl sn 14
CAAP-2 sn, sw, sk br, tr, gr kl, gl, fl pj, sw sn 10
DEAP-A sn br, kr sn 3
DEAP-P a sn, sw, sp, sk, skw, spl, str pr, br(4), tr, kr, fr, θr, str gl, spl kw, sw, skw sn 18
GFTA-2 sw, sp, st, sl br, tr, dr, kr, gr, fr pl, bl, kl, gl, fl, sl kw, sw 16
GFTA-3 sw, sp, st, sl pr, br(3), tr, dr, kr, gr, fr pl, bl, gl, sl kw, sw 17
HAPP-3 a sm, sn, sw, sp, st, sl, skw, str, skr br, tr, dr, kr, gr, θr, str, skr pl, bl, kl, gl(2), fl, sl mj, kw, kj, sw, skw mj, sm, sn 24
LAT sm, st, sk pr, br(3), tr, dr, kr, gr, fr pl, bl, kl, gl, fl sm 17
PAT-3 sw, sp, st(2), sk br(2), tr, kr(2) bl, kl, gl, fl(2) sw 15
SHAPE a , b sm, sn(2), sw, sp(2), st, sk, sl, spl, spr, str, skw, skr pr, br(2), tr, dr, kr, gr, fr, θr, spr, str, skr pl, bl, kl(2), gl(2), fl, sl, spl tw, kw, sw, skw sm, sn (2) 32
SPAT-DII sn, sw, st, sl br(3), tr, dr, kr bl, fl, sl sw sn 12
Note. Clusters are included in more than one column if they represent more than one type (e.g., /sl/ is included in both /s/ and /l/ columns). Total reflects the total number of clusters in each test (e.g., while included in both /s/ and /l/ columns, /sl/ is counted only once). AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. Clusters are included in more than one column if they represent more than one type (e.g., /sl/ is included in both /s/ and /l/ columns). Total reflects the total number of clusters in each test (e.g., while included in both /s/ and /l/ columns, /sl/ is counted only once). AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Contains three-element consonant clusters.
Contains three-element consonant clusters.×
b Contains the most syllable-initial consonant clusters.
Contains the most syllable-initial consonant clusters.×
×
Table 9. Numbers and types of syllable-final consonant clusters in each test.
Numbers and types of syllable-final consonant clusters in each test.×
/s, z/ /r/ /l/ Nasal Total
AAPS-3 st, ps, ts, ks, rs rk, rs ld mp 8
BBTOP st rd lk mp, nt, nd 6
CAAP-2 nt 1
DEAP-A gz 2
DEAP-P vz nt(2), nd, nʤ, ŋk 6
GFTA-2 nz, lz, rz rz lz mp(2), nz, nʤ 6
GFTA-3 nt 1
HAPP-3 sk, ts, ks, rs, nz, bz, dz rk, rs dl mp, nz 10
LAT nz rd nz 2
PAT-3 a ts(2), ks, nz(2), lz(3), rz(2) rk, rz(2) lz(3) mp, nt, nd, nz(2), nʤ, ŋk 16
SHAPE nz(2) nt, nz(2) 3
SPAT-DII ks nt, nʤ 3
Note. Clusters are included in more than one column if they represent more than one type (e.g., /rs/ is included in both /s/ and /r/ columns). Total reflects the total number of clusters in each test (e.g., while included in both /s/ and /r/ columns, /rs/ is counted only once). AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. Clusters are included in more than one column if they represent more than one type (e.g., /rs/ is included in both /s/ and /r/ columns). Total reflects the total number of clusters in each test (e.g., while included in both /s/ and /r/ columns, /rs/ is counted only once). AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Contains the most syllable-final consonant clusters.
Contains the most syllable-final consonant clusters.×
Table 9. Numbers and types of syllable-final consonant clusters in each test.
Numbers and types of syllable-final consonant clusters in each test.×
/s, z/ /r/ /l/ Nasal Total
AAPS-3 st, ps, ts, ks, rs rk, rs ld mp 8
BBTOP st rd lk mp, nt, nd 6
CAAP-2 nt 1
DEAP-A gz 2
DEAP-P vz nt(2), nd, nʤ, ŋk 6
GFTA-2 nz, lz, rz rz lz mp(2), nz, nʤ 6
GFTA-3 nt 1
HAPP-3 sk, ts, ks, rs, nz, bz, dz rk, rs dl mp, nz 10
LAT nz rd nz 2
PAT-3 a ts(2), ks, nz(2), lz(3), rz(2) rk, rz(2) lz(3) mp, nt, nd, nz(2), nʤ, ŋk 16
SHAPE nz(2) nt, nz(2) 3
SPAT-DII ks nt, nʤ 3
Note. Clusters are included in more than one column if they represent more than one type (e.g., /rs/ is included in both /s/ and /r/ columns). Total reflects the total number of clusters in each test (e.g., while included in both /s/ and /r/ columns, /rs/ is counted only once). AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. Clusters are included in more than one column if they represent more than one type (e.g., /rs/ is included in both /s/ and /r/ columns). Total reflects the total number of clusters in each test (e.g., while included in both /s/ and /r/ columns, /rs/ is counted only once). AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Contains the most syllable-final consonant clusters.
Contains the most syllable-final consonant clusters.×
×
Only nine of the total 667 stimulus items across all tests (1.3%) contained four syllables. Only 40 (6.0%) contained three syllables. All other stimulus items contained either one or two syllables. The number of stimulus items in each test containing one, two, three, and four syllables is presented in Table 10. The PAT-3 contained the most multisyllabic stimulus items. The rank ordering of the tests by the mean number of syllables in each stimulus item is included in Table 6. The LAT contained the highest mean number of syllables per stimulus item, whereas the DEAP-A contained the lowest.
Table 10. Number of stimulus items in each test containing one, two, three, and four syllables.
Number of stimulus items in each test containing one, two, three, and four syllables.×
Test 1 syllable 2 syllables 3 syllables 4 syllables
AAPS-3 34 11 0 1
BBTOP 58 14 8 0
CAAP-2 33 2 7 2
DEAP-A 26 3 0 1
DEAP-P 26 19 4 1
GFTA-2 27 23 3 0
GFTA-3 35 22 3 0
HAPP-3 33 13 3 1
LAT 27 19 5 1
PAT-3 a 44 28 4 0
SHAPE 67 11 1 2
SPAT-DII 21 22 2 0
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Contains the most multisyllabic stimulus items.
Contains the most multisyllabic stimulus items.×
Table 10. Number of stimulus items in each test containing one, two, three, and four syllables.
Number of stimulus items in each test containing one, two, three, and four syllables.×
Test 1 syllable 2 syllables 3 syllables 4 syllables
AAPS-3 34 11 0 1
BBTOP 58 14 8 0
CAAP-2 33 2 7 2
DEAP-A 26 3 0 1
DEAP-P 26 19 4 1
GFTA-2 27 23 3 0
GFTA-3 35 22 3 0
HAPP-3 33 13 3 1
LAT 27 19 5 1
PAT-3 a 44 28 4 0
SHAPE 67 11 1 2
SPAT-DII 21 22 2 0
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Contains the most multisyllabic stimulus items.
Contains the most multisyllabic stimulus items.×
×
Bound Morphemes
The number of stimulus items containing bound morphemes in each test, including those that resulted in word-final consonant clusters and those that represented a scored structure, is presented in Table 11, along with ranges across the tests. The number of items in each test containing bound morphemes ranged from zero (CAAP-2) to 18 (PAT-3). The number of items in each test with bound morphemes resulting in word-final clusters ranged from zero (BBTOP, CAAP-2, and GFTA-3) to 10 (PAT-3). In all of these cases, the bound morpheme was plural -s. None of the tests contained items with third–person singular -s, possessive 's, or past tense -ed. The number of items in each test with bound morphemes that were scored ranged from zero (CAAP-2, PAT-3, and SHAPE) to seven (HAPP-3).
Table 11. Number of stimulus items containing bound morphemes, bound morphemes with complex phonological structures, and scored bound morphemes.
Number of stimulus items containing bound morphemes, bound morphemes with complex phonological structures, and scored bound morphemes.×
Test No. of bound morphemes No. of complex structures No. of scored morphemes
AAPS-3 5 3 2
BBTOP 1 0 1
CAAP-2 a 0 0 0
DEAP-A 1 1 1
DEAP-P 3 1 3
GFTA-2 12 3 1
GFTA-3 4 0 4
HAPP-3 7 4 7
LAT 7 1 5
PAT-3 18 10 0
SHAPE 2 2 0
SPAT-DII 9 1 2
Range 0–18 0–10 0–7
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Contains the fewest bound morphemes.
Contains the fewest bound morphemes.×
Table 11. Number of stimulus items containing bound morphemes, bound morphemes with complex phonological structures, and scored bound morphemes.
Number of stimulus items containing bound morphemes, bound morphemes with complex phonological structures, and scored bound morphemes.×
Test No. of bound morphemes No. of complex structures No. of scored morphemes
AAPS-3 5 3 2
BBTOP 1 0 1
CAAP-2 a 0 0 0
DEAP-A 1 1 1
DEAP-P 3 1 3
GFTA-2 12 3 1
GFTA-3 4 0 4
HAPP-3 7 4 7
LAT 7 1 5
PAT-3 18 10 0
SHAPE 2 2 0
SPAT-DII 9 1 2
Range 0–18 0–10 0–7
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Contains the fewest bound morphemes.
Contains the fewest bound morphemes.×
×
Discussion
The primary purpose of this study was to provide SLPs with a description of the stimulus characteristics of popular standardized tests of speech sound production, including frequency of occurrence data, phonetic/phonological and structural complexity, and the presence of bound morphemes. A secondary purpose was to determine if the tests provide a sufficient sample for conducting a comprehensive phonological analysis. The analyses performed revealed that the tests vary widely in terms of their numbers of stimulus items; the syllables, consonant singletons, consonant clusters, vowels, and bound morphemes contained within their stimulus items; and the phonetic/phonological and structural complexity of their stimulus items. This variety mirrors the heterogeneity seen in the population of children they are designed to assess, that is, those with SSDs. These children represent a wide range of ages, severity levels, and subtypes of SSDs. The SLP's role is to decide which test is most appropriate for his or her client(s).
Consonant Coverage
These data complement the study by Eisenberg and Hitchcock (2010), whose findings were intended to identify which tests allowed readers to generate a valid phonetic inventory for consonants and vowels. The present study was intended to provide readers with actual numbers of occurrences of each consonant and rhotic vowel in each test and determine the adequacy of the tests in providing a sufficient sample with which to conduct a comprehensive phonological analysis. This information may be useful for SLPs who are choosing a test that will be most appropriate for their clients and for those who already use a test in determining which sounds need supplemental testing. The BBTOP had the most stops across all word positions and might be best suited to children who are suspected of having difficulties producing stops, for example, those who substitute voiced for voiceless stops or those who substitute alveolar for velar stops. The PAT-3 had the most fricatives across all word positions, including the most interdental (/θ, ð/), alveolar (/s, z/), and palatal (/ʃ, ʒ/) fricatives. These fricatives, in particular, are known to be problematic for children with SSDs (Shriberg, 1993). This test might be best suited to children with reported difficulties producing fricatives. The LAT had the most liquids and rhotic vowels, which are also known to cause difficulties for children with SSDs (Shriberg, 1993) and are among the last phonemes to be mastered by the general population (Smit, Hand, Freilinger, Bernthal, & Bird, 1990). This test might be best suited to children with reported difficulties producing liquids and rhotic vowels.
A secondary aim of this study was to determine if the tests provide a sufficient sample with which to conduct a comprehensive phonological analysis. Examination of the consonant occurrence data reveals one particularly noteworthy finding. Most of the tests (AAPS-3, CAAP-2, DEAP-A, DEAP-P, GFTA-2, HAPP-3, LAT, and SPAT-DII) included only one opportunity, scored or unscored, to produce a majority of the consonants in each word position. As argued earlier, a comprehensive phonological analysis might include an error pattern and/or PVM analysis. It seems desirable to have at least two opportunities for production of each consonant in each word position for these analyses. Only four of the 12 tests (BBTOP, GFTA-3, PAT-3, and SHAPE) had two or more opportunities for a majority of consonants in word-initial position. None of the tests had two or more opportunities for a majority of consonants in word-medial position. Six tests (BBTOP, CAAP-2, DEAP-P, GFTA-3, PAT-3, and SHAPE) had two or more opportunities for a majority of consonants in word-final position. Furthermore, across the tests, most of the consonant occurrences appeared to be for stops and nasals. Children with SSDs tend to produce early developing speech sounds such as these more accurately than later developing sounds, such as fricatives, affricates, and liquids (Shriberg, 1993). Given recent findings of high rates of production inconsistency in children, even those with typical development (de Castro & Wertzner, 2011; Macrae, 2013; Macrae & Sosa, 2015; McLeod & Hewett, 2008; Sosa, 2015; Sosa & Stoel-Gammon, 2012), it seems important to provide children with more than one opportunity to produce a consonant in a particular word position by supplementing tests of speech sound production with additional stimulus items. This is especially important for later developing sounds, which tend to be produced less consistently and accurately than early developing sounds (Macrae, 2013; McLeod & Hewett, 2008; Shriberg, 1993; Sosa & Stoel-Gammon, 2012).
The recommendation to conduct supplemental single-word testing is not new (Bankson et al., 2013; Bernhardt & Holdgrafer, 2001b; Macrae, 2016; Miccio, 2002, 2005). The number of words elicited by a standardized test of speech sound production ranges from as few as 30 (DEAP-A; Dodd et al., 2006) to as many as 81 (SHAPE; Smit & Hand, 1992), while recommendations in the literature for adequate single-word samples range from 100 (Bernhardt & Holdgrafer, 2001a; Tyler, 2005) to 250 (Grunwell, 1985). An SLP may be assessing a child with reported difficulties producing /s/ clusters, for example. If the standardized test provides only a limited number of opportunities to produce these speech sounds, he or she should supplement the test with additional words. Although supplemental single-word testing is recommended, it is likely to present a challenge to most SLPs due to the time constraints associated with large clinical caseloads (Khan, 2002). The frequency of occurrence data here will allow SLPs to determine which sounds need supplemental testing.
Several tests had high proportions of scored consonant singleton, consonant cluster, and rhotic vowel productions. All of the productions in both the DEAP-A and GFTA-3 were scored. Four other tests (HAPP-3, DEAP-P, LAT, and BBTOP) had proportions of 80% or higher. Some of the tests included a large number of productions that did not contribute to a child's standard score. For example, more than half of the productions in the PAT-3 were unscored. It should be noted that, while only 56% of the productions in the GFTA-2 were scored, all productions are included in an error pattern analysis performed using the accompanying Khan–Lewis Phonological Analysis–Second Edition (Khan & Lewis, 2002). SLPs should use all productions, both scored and unscored, as the basis of their phonological analyses if these analyses are to be most comprehensive (Bankson et al., 2013; Elbert & Gierut, 1986; Klein, 1984; Macrae, 2016). This requires the transcription of all speech sounds produced by a child, not just those scored by the test. These transcriptions would then be used to conduct a phonetic inventory, determine accuracy for different speech sounds or manner classes (e.g., fricatives), and/or conduct error pattern or PVM analyses.
Vowel Coverage
The data pertaining to the total number of occurrences of the vowels of SAE in each of the tests also complement the findings from Eisenberg and Hitchcock (2010) . The present study provides readers with actual numbers of occurrences of each vowel in each test. This information may also be useful for SLPs, who may wish to provide children with multiple opportunities to produce different vowels. For example, a child may show particular difficulty with front vowels. The PAT-3 provides the most opportunities for front vowel productions (n = 55), and vowel errors also contribute to the test's standard score. Furthermore, Eisenberg and Hitchcock (2010)  reported that the PAT-3 included at least two phonetically controlled words for 11 of the 15 vowels they analyzed. These authors defined phonetically controlled words for vowels as those that were monosyllabic “in which the vowel either occurred in an open syllable or was followed by a consonant other than a liquid or occurred in the stressed syllable of a bisyllabic word” (p. 493). Examples of phonetically controlled words for /i/ include key, leap, and meeting.
One difference is apparent between the consonant and vowel coverage data. While most of the tests included only one opportunity to produce a majority of the consonants, all of the tests included multiple opportunities to produce a majority of the vowels. In fact, all but one of the tests (DEAP-A) included at least three opportunities for a majority of the vowels. Clearly, the main reason for this difference between the consonant and vowel data is simply that there are fewer vowels than consonants in SAE and therefore more opportunities to produce each one. Three vowels for which there were limited opportunities for production, almost universally across the tests, were the monophthong /ʊ/, the rhotic vowel /ɝ/, and the diphthong /ɔɪ/. This is consistent with Eisenberg and Hitchcock (2010), who reported limited opportunities in the tests they evaluated for generating a valid phonetic inventory for these particular vowels. While Eisenberg and Hitchcock concluded that none of the tests are valid for obtaining a phonetic inventory for vowels, the implications from the present study's findings are that SLPs should not have to supplement tests of speech sound production with many additional stimulus items if they are not concerned about sampling children's vowel productions in phonetically controlled words. SLPs might be more interested in sampling vowels in a variety of contexts than obtaining a phonetic inventory, especially for older children or those with more advanced speech sound systems.
SLPs have only a few options available to them for scoring vowel productions, if they are testing children with suspected vowel difficulties. Only three tests scored both nonrhotic and rhotic vowels. Furthermore, it is difficult to determine the relative contribution of vowel errors to a child's standard score on these tests. If a child produces both consonant and vowel errors and scores below the typical range (below 1 SD below the mean), it is not possible to determine whether the child's consonant productions or vowel productions (or both) are age inappropriate. The DEAP-A does include a section that assists the examiner in calculating percent vowels correct (Shriberg et al., 1997) and assigning a severity rating based on this value. In contrast to Eisenberg and Hitchcock (2010), who reported that the HAPP-3 scored vowels, the present investigation determined that this test does not score vowel productions, neither nonrhotic nor rhotic. The test record form does include space for summarizing vowel productions, as does the SPAT-DII. The GFTA-3 record form includes a section for performing an informal analysis of 15 vowels of SAE.
Complexity
These tests varied in terms of the phonetic/phonological and structural complexity of their stimulus items. SLPs may consider these data when deciding on a test to use with their students. Tests with the most complex stimulus items, that is, those that contain the most consonant clusters and syllables and the most complex consonant singletons (e.g., HAPP-3), may be most ideal for older children or those with mild or moderate SSDs. Tests with less complex stimulus items may not sufficiently tax these children's speech sound production abilities. Tests with stimulus items of low complexity, that is, those that contain few consonant clusters and syllables and the least complex consonant singletons (e.g., DEAP-A), may be more appropriate for young children or those with severe SSDs. Tests with more complex stimulus items may not be sufficiently sensitive to these children's immature speech sound production abilities. The HAPP-3, PAT-3, or SHAPE, which included numerous items containing one or two consonant clusters, might be chosen to test children whose difficulties lie mainly with clusters. Two of these tests (the HAPP-3 and SHAPE) are among only three that contained stimulus items with three-element clusters. This highlights the need to supplement standardized tests with additional items containing three-element clusters for children with cluster difficulties. The PAT-3, which contained the most multisyllabic items, and the BBTOP and CAAP-2, which included eight and nine 3- or 4-syllable items, respectively, might be chosen to test a child whose difficulties lie mainly with multisyllabic words.
There was some similarity in the rank ordering of the tests according to the three different measures of complexity (WCM, clusters, and syllables), as would be expected given the inclusion of clusters and syllables in the calculation of WCM. Many of the tests had similar ranks for two or all three of the measures. For example, the DEAP-P, GFTA-2, and HAPP-3 were ranked consistently high in terms of complexity. The BBTOP and DEAP-A were ranked consistently low in terms of complexity. The rank ordering according to the different measures was not, however, identical. For example, the SHAPE had the fourth lowest WCM mean rank and second lowest mean number of syllables per stimulus item but the third highest mean number of clusters per stimulus item. While the stimulus items in the SHAPE contained a relatively large number of consonant clusters, they were predominantly within monosyllabic words. Furthermore, upon inspection of the frequency of occurrence data, the SHAPE had the third fewest total number of fricatives. This is a manner class that increases a word's complexity, according to the WCM. This likely contributed to the SHAPE's low WCM mean rank. The AAPS-3 had the lowest WCM mean rank but did not have the lowest mean number of syllables or clusters per stimulus item. Examination of the frequency of occurrence data reveals that the AAPS-3 had the second fewest total number of fricatives and equally fewest total number of affricates. Both of these manner classes increase a word's complexity. These observations underlie the multifaceted nature of word complexity, as measured using Stoel-Gammon's (2010)  WCM. In addition to clusters and syllables, WCM reflects the complexity of the phonemes contained within stimulus items, and SLPs should consider all sources of complexity when selecting a test.
Bound Morphemes
Many of the tests contained numerous stimulus items with bound morphemes. Only one test, the CAAP-2, contained no stimulus items with bound morphemes. Half of the tests contained five or more words that included bound morphemes. The mean number of stimulus items with bound morphemes across the tests was 5.8. Bound morphemes that cause particular difficulty for children with LI are those that, when added to a word, result in complex phonological structures, that is, word-final consonant clusters (Paul, 2001). While many of the tests contained stimulus items with bound morphemes that resulted in word-final clusters, the numbers were low. Furthermore, the numbers of stimulus items with bound morphemes that were actually scored by the tests were even lower. These findings suggest that most tests of speech sound production contain a negligible number of stimulus items with bound morphemes that result in word-final clusters or that contribute to a child's score. SLPs should feel comfortable administering these tests to children with confirmed or suspected LI. These children's difficulties with bound morphemes that result in complex phonological structures will not have a clinically meaningful impact on their ability to produce the tests' stimulus items.
Clinical Implications
The many differences among these tests in the characteristics of their stimulus items and their scoring procedures highlight the importance of evaluating these aspects and choosing a test that is most sensitive to a child's reported difficulties. SLPs should consider client characteristics, including age and reported severity and nature of a child's difficulties, when deciding on a test for an assessment protocol. If the child is young and reported to have difficulties with early-developing word or syllable structures and phonemes, for example, monosyllabic words containing stop singletons, a test containing multiple opportunities to produce these structures and phonemes should be chosen. If the child is older and reported to have difficulties with late-developing structures and phonemes, for example, multisyllabic words containing consonant clusters, fricatives, affricates, and/or glides, a test containing multiple opportunities to produce these should be chosen.
It seems apparent from the analyses performed for this study that, while administering a standardized test of speech sound production is important, especially for determining eligibility for treatment, SLPs who wish to provide their clients with multiple opportunities to produce certain phonemes in different word positions may need to consider additional speech sampling. A comprehensive speech sound assessment might include additional single-word testing and connected speech sampling (Bankson et al., 2013; Bernhardt & Holdgrafer, 2001a; Elbert & Gierut, 1986; Grunwell, 1985; Macrae, 2016; Miccio, 2002, 2005; Morrison & Shriberg, 1992; Tyler, 2005). Supplemental single-word lists might be constructed to provide children with additional opportunities to produce both two-element and three-element consonant clusters and/or consonant singletons that are insufficiently sampled using their chosen test of speech sound production. For example, only three of the tests included stimulus items with three-element consonant clusters, and the majority contained limited opportunities to produce three- or four-syllable stimulus items. These tests should be supplemented with additional words containing these items. As another example, while children with SSDs tend to have difficulty producing fricatives and affricates (e.g., Shriberg, 1993), many of the tests analyzed provided limited opportunities to produce each of these sounds in each word position. When testing children with reported difficulties producing fricatives and/or affricates, these tests should be supplemented with additional words containing these phonemes. While there might not be time for additional speech sampling during an evaluation session, this can be done after first determining that a child qualifies for therapy in the first few therapy sessions (Khan, 2002).
Acknowledgments
The author would like to thank Kenn Apel and Danielle Brimo for their assistance with earlier versions of this study.
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Footnote
1 The term error pattern is preferred over phonological process for the same reasons discussed in Kirk and Vigeland (2015)  and Lof (2002) . First, error pattern is descriptive, whereas phonological process is based on the natural theory of phonology, which attempts to explain output errors as a result of one or more simplification processes being applied to a child's internal representation of a word, which is adultlike. Second, phonological process can be confused with phonological processing, which is a different construct altogether.
The term error pattern is preferred over phonological process for the same reasons discussed in Kirk and Vigeland (2015)  and Lof (2002) . First, error pattern is descriptive, whereas phonological process is based on the natural theory of phonology, which attempts to explain output errors as a result of one or more simplification processes being applied to a child's internal representation of a word, which is adultlike. Second, phonological process can be confused with phonological processing, which is a different construct altogether.×
Figure 1.

Total number of scored and unscored consonant singletons, clusters, and rhotic vowels and percentage of total sounds that are scored for each test. DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition, Articulation Subtest; AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition; SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry; CAAP = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology; HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition, Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition; LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test; GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition; SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation; BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology; PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition.

 Total number of scored and unscored consonant singletons, clusters, and rhotic vowels and percentage of total sounds that are scored for each test. DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition, Articulation Subtest; AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition; SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry; CAAP = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology; HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition, Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition; LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test; GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition; SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation; BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology; PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition.
Figure 1.

Total number of scored and unscored consonant singletons, clusters, and rhotic vowels and percentage of total sounds that are scored for each test. DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition, Articulation Subtest; AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition; SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry; CAAP = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology; HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition, Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition; LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test; GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition; SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation; BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology; PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition.

×
Table 1. Number of occurrences of each word-initial consonant singleton of Standard American English in each test.
Number of occurrences of each word-initial consonant singleton of Standard American English in each test.×
Test Stop
Nasal
Fricative
Affricate
Glide
Liquid
Total
p b t d k g m n f v θ ð s z ʃ h ʧ ʤ w j l r
AAPS-3 1 5 3 1 7 0 2 4 2 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 40
BBTOP 3 7 3 5 9 3 4 2 3 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 68
CAAP-2 1 3 1 2 3 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 3 2 35
DEAP-A 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 27
DEAP-P 1 3 4 1 1 0 1 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 1 29
GFTA-2 2 5 1 1 3 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 2 36
GFTA-3 3 1 4 2 2 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 42
HAPP-3 1 2 2 0 2 1 2 1 3 1 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 28
LAT 4 4 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 3 2 35
PAT-3 3 11 5 1 8 1 3 2 3 1 2 1 3 1 1 5 1 1 2 1 2 1 59
SHAPE 1 6 1 3 6 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 43
SPAT-DII 3 3 2 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 33
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
Table 1. Number of occurrences of each word-initial consonant singleton of Standard American English in each test.
Number of occurrences of each word-initial consonant singleton of Standard American English in each test.×
Test Stop
Nasal
Fricative
Affricate
Glide
Liquid
Total
p b t d k g m n f v θ ð s z ʃ h ʧ ʤ w j l r
AAPS-3 1 5 3 1 7 0 2 4 2 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 40
BBTOP 3 7 3 5 9 3 4 2 3 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 68
CAAP-2 1 3 1 2 3 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 3 2 35
DEAP-A 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 27
DEAP-P 1 3 4 1 1 0 1 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 1 29
GFTA-2 2 5 1 1 3 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 2 36
GFTA-3 3 1 4 2 2 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 42
HAPP-3 1 2 2 0 2 1 2 1 3 1 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 28
LAT 4 4 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 3 2 35
PAT-3 3 11 5 1 8 1 3 2 3 1 2 1 3 1 1 5 1 1 2 1 2 1 59
SHAPE 1 6 1 3 6 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 43
SPAT-DII 3 3 2 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 33
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
×
Table 2. Number of occurrences of each word-medial consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.
Number of occurrences of each word-medial consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.×
Test Stop
Nasal
Fricative
Affricate
Glide
Liquid
Total
p b t d k g m n ŋ f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h ʧ ʤ w j l r/ɝ/ɚ
AAPS-3 1 2 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 16
BBTOP 1 1 4 2 0 2 1 3 1 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 4 30
CAAP-2 2 1 4 0 2 1 4 3 1 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 2 28
DEAP-A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 7
DEAP-P 2 2 3 1 3 1 2 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 4 4 34
GFTA-2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 3 5 36
GFTA-3 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 1 2 1 2 0 1 2 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 1 2 1 31
HAPP-3 0 2 0 1 2 0 1 1 1 0 2 1 1 3 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 2 0 23
LAT 1 3 7 1 2 2 1 2 1 3 1 0 0 2 3 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 3 6 43
PAT-3 2 1 3 2 3 1 1 4 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 2 3 2 7 45
SHAPE 2 1 1 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 14
SPAT-DII 1 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 0 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 2 29
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
Table 2. Number of occurrences of each word-medial consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.
Number of occurrences of each word-medial consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.×
Test Stop
Nasal
Fricative
Affricate
Glide
Liquid
Total
p b t d k g m n ŋ f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h ʧ ʤ w j l r/ɝ/ɚ
AAPS-3 1 2 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 16
BBTOP 1 1 4 2 0 2 1 3 1 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 4 30
CAAP-2 2 1 4 0 2 1 4 3 1 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 2 28
DEAP-A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 7
DEAP-P 2 2 3 1 3 1 2 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 4 4 34
GFTA-2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 3 5 36
GFTA-3 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 1 2 1 2 0 1 2 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 1 2 1 31
HAPP-3 0 2 0 1 2 0 1 1 1 0 2 1 1 3 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 2 0 23
LAT 1 3 7 1 2 2 1 2 1 3 1 0 0 2 3 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 3 6 43
PAT-3 2 1 3 2 3 1 1 4 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 2 3 2 7 45
SHAPE 2 1 1 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 14
SPAT-DII 1 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 0 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 2 29
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
×
Table 3. Number of occurrences of each word-final consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.
Number of occurrences of each word-final consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.×
Test Stop
Nasal
Fricative
Affricate
Liquid
Total
p b t d k g m n ŋ f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʧ ʤ l r/ɝ/ɚ
AAPS-3 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 8 1 1 1 1 0 2 2 1 0 1 0 2 5 35
BBTOP 4 2 9 3 4 3 3 10 0 2 2 2 0 2 3 2 0 3 3 1 7 65
CAAP-2 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 4 7 41
DEAP-A 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 2 3 25
DEAP-P 1 2 2 1 3 3 0 4 2 2 1 1 0 2 1 2 0 2 0 2 5 36
GFTA-2 1 1 2 1 2 1 3 6 5 1 1 1 0 2 6 1 0 1 1 3 5 44
GFTA-3 2 1 2 2 3 2 3 4 3 3 1 1 0 3 3 1 0 1 0 5 10 50
HAPP-3 2 0 2 1 5 0 2 5 3 1 1 1 0 1 2 2 0 1 1 1 7 38
LAT 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 5 3 1 1 1 0 2 3 1 0 1 1 7 9 44
PAT-3 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 1 1 1 1 1 3 8 3 1 2 1 3 8 55
SHAPE 5 1 5 4 7 4 3 8 4 1 1 1 0 5 2 2 0 1 2 3 10 69
SPAT-DII 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 3 1 1 1 0 3 6 2 0 1 1 3 4 38
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
Table 3. Number of occurrences of each word-final consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.
Number of occurrences of each word-final consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.×
Test Stop
Nasal
Fricative
Affricate
Liquid
Total
p b t d k g m n ŋ f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʧ ʤ l r/ɝ/ɚ
AAPS-3 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 8 1 1 1 1 0 2 2 1 0 1 0 2 5 35
BBTOP 4 2 9 3 4 3 3 10 0 2 2 2 0 2 3 2 0 3 3 1 7 65
CAAP-2 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 4 7 41
DEAP-A 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 2 3 25
DEAP-P 1 2 2 1 3 3 0 4 2 2 1 1 0 2 1 2 0 2 0 2 5 36
GFTA-2 1 1 2 1 2 1 3 6 5 1 1 1 0 2 6 1 0 1 1 3 5 44
GFTA-3 2 1 2 2 3 2 3 4 3 3 1 1 0 3 3 1 0 1 0 5 10 50
HAPP-3 2 0 2 1 5 0 2 5 3 1 1 1 0 1 2 2 0 1 1 1 7 38
LAT 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 5 3 1 1 1 0 2 3 1 0 1 1 7 9 44
PAT-3 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 1 1 1 1 1 3 8 3 1 2 1 3 8 55
SHAPE 5 1 5 4 7 4 3 8 4 1 1 1 0 5 2 2 0 1 2 3 10 69
SPAT-DII 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 3 1 1 1 0 3 6 2 0 1 1 3 4 38
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
×
Table 4. Total number of occurrences of each consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.
Total number of occurrences of each consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.×
Test Stop
Nasal
Fricative
Affricate
Glide
Liquid
Total
p b t d k g m n ŋ f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h ʧ ʤ w j l r/ɝ/ɚ
AAPS-3 3 8 4 4 9 3 4 12 2 3 2 3 1 3 3 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 5 11 91
BBTOP 8 10 16 10 13 8 8 15 1 6 4 3 4 6 5 4 0 2 5 5 2 4 9 15 163
CAAP-2 4 5 6 4 7 5 7 6 4 5 3 3 2 6 2 2 1 4 2 3 2 2 8 11 104
DEAP-A 2 4 3 2 3 2 3 4 1 4 3 2 1 3 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 5 7 59
DEAP-P 4 7 9 3 7 4 3 5 3 6 2 3 2 5 4 4 0 2 3 1 3 2 7 10 99
GFTA-2 4 7 4 3 7 4 6 11 7 6 3 3 2 5 8 3 0 1 3 3 5 2 7 12 116
GFTA-3 6 4 8 5 8 6 6 6 5 7 5 2 2 7 6 4 0 2 4 4 2 2 9 13 123
HAPP-3 3 4 4 2 9 1 5 7 4 4 4 3 1 5 4 3 1 3 2 2 2 4 4 8 89
LAT 6 8 10 3 6 4 4 8 4 6 3 2 0 5 7 3 0 2 3 3 3 2 13 17 122
PAT-3 6 13 10 5 14 5 8 11 4 5 3 5 3 7 10 5 2 5 4 3 4 4 7 16 159
SHAPE 8 8 7 9 13 6 4 12 4 2 2 3 1 7 4 4 0 2 3 3 2 2 6 14 126
SPAT-DII 5 5 4 4 8 3 6 6 3 4 3 4 2 5 8 5 0 1 2 3 2 2 8 7 100
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
Table 4. Total number of occurrences of each consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.
Total number of occurrences of each consonant singleton and rhotic vowel of Standard American English in each test.×
Test Stop
Nasal
Fricative
Affricate
Glide
Liquid
Total
p b t d k g m n ŋ f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h ʧ ʤ w j l r/ɝ/ɚ
AAPS-3 3 8 4 4 9 3 4 12 2 3 2 3 1 3 3 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 5 11 91
BBTOP 8 10 16 10 13 8 8 15 1 6 4 3 4 6 5 4 0 2 5 5 2 4 9 15 163
CAAP-2 4 5 6 4 7 5 7 6 4 5 3 3 2 6 2 2 1 4 2 3 2 2 8 11 104
DEAP-A 2 4 3 2 3 2 3 4 1 4 3 2 1 3 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 5 7 59
DEAP-P 4 7 9 3 7 4 3 5 3 6 2 3 2 5 4 4 0 2 3 1 3 2 7 10 99
GFTA-2 4 7 4 3 7 4 6 11 7 6 3 3 2 5 8 3 0 1 3 3 5 2 7 12 116
GFTA-3 6 4 8 5 8 6 6 6 5 7 5 2 2 7 6 4 0 2 4 4 2 2 9 13 123
HAPP-3 3 4 4 2 9 1 5 7 4 4 4 3 1 5 4 3 1 3 2 2 2 4 4 8 89
LAT 6 8 10 3 6 4 4 8 4 6 3 2 0 5 7 3 0 2 3 3 3 2 13 17 122
PAT-3 6 13 10 5 14 5 8 11 4 5 3 5 3 7 10 5 2 5 4 3 4 4 7 16 159
SHAPE 8 8 7 9 13 6 4 12 4 2 2 3 1 7 4 4 0 2 3 3 2 2 6 14 126
SPAT-DII 5 5 4 4 8 3 6 6 3 4 3 4 2 5 8 5 0 1 2 3 2 2 8 7 100
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
×
Table 5. Number of occurrences of each monophthong and diphthong vowel of Standard American English in each test and the contribution of vowel errors to test standardized scores.
Number of occurrences of each monophthong and diphthong vowel of Standard American English in each test and the contribution of vowel errors to test standardized scores.×
Test Vowel
Total
Front
Back
Central
Diphthong
i ɪ e ɛ æ u ʊ o ɔ ɑ ʌ ə ɝ ɚ ɔɪ
AAPS-3 a 4 8 5 6 5 1 1 5 4 2 6 5 1 5 2 1 0 61
BBTOP b 7 8 9 10 15 4 1 9 3 4 11 11 1 6 6 4 0 109
CAAP-2 b 5 9 7 7 4 3 0 2 3 5 2 6 0 7 3 3 0 66
DEAP-A a 3 6 1 4 3 1 1 2 2 3 1 3 2 0 2 1 1 36
DEAP-P b 7 12 3 11 9 3 1 2 3 2 5 10 0 7 5 1 1 82
GFTA-2 c 3 16 1 5 11 4 0 3 3 4 8 10 1 6 4 3 0 82
GFTA-3 b 8 8 2 8 8 5 1 3 2 3 10 15 0 7 6 2 1 89
HAPP-3 c 4 10 5 4 7 6 0 7 2 5 6 2 0 6 3 4 1 72
LAT b 8 6 7 8 3 2 1 4 3 4 8 10 3 11 5 4 0 87
PAT-3 a 7 8 13 9 18 6 1 3 4 6 8 14 1 10 2 2 1 113
SHAPE b 6 13 11 10 10 3 0 7 4 9 9 6 0 12 4 2 0 106
SPAT-DII c 9 7 2 8 9 4 1 5 1 2 9 10 0 4 0 1 0 72
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Nonrhotic and rhotic vowels contribute to the standard score.
Nonrhotic and rhotic vowels contribute to the standard score.×
b Rhotic vowels contribute to the standard score.
Rhotic vowels contribute to the standard score.×
c Vowels do not contribute to the standard score.
Vowels do not contribute to the standard score.×
Table 5. Number of occurrences of each monophthong and diphthong vowel of Standard American English in each test and the contribution of vowel errors to test standardized scores.
Number of occurrences of each monophthong and diphthong vowel of Standard American English in each test and the contribution of vowel errors to test standardized scores.×
Test Vowel
Total
Front
Back
Central
Diphthong
i ɪ e ɛ æ u ʊ o ɔ ɑ ʌ ə ɝ ɚ ɔɪ
AAPS-3 a 4 8 5 6 5 1 1 5 4 2 6 5 1 5 2 1 0 61
BBTOP b 7 8 9 10 15 4 1 9 3 4 11 11 1 6 6 4 0 109
CAAP-2 b 5 9 7 7 4 3 0 2 3 5 2 6 0 7 3 3 0 66
DEAP-A a 3 6 1 4 3 1 1 2 2 3 1 3 2 0 2 1 1 36
DEAP-P b 7 12 3 11 9 3 1 2 3 2 5 10 0 7 5 1 1 82
GFTA-2 c 3 16 1 5 11 4 0 3 3 4 8 10 1 6 4 3 0 82
GFTA-3 b 8 8 2 8 8 5 1 3 2 3 10 15 0 7 6 2 1 89
HAPP-3 c 4 10 5 4 7 6 0 7 2 5 6 2 0 6 3 4 1 72
LAT b 8 6 7 8 3 2 1 4 3 4 8 10 3 11 5 4 0 87
PAT-3 a 7 8 13 9 18 6 1 3 4 6 8 14 1 10 2 2 1 113
SHAPE b 6 13 11 10 10 3 0 7 4 9 9 6 0 12 4 2 0 106
SPAT-DII c 9 7 2 8 9 4 1 5 1 2 9 10 0 4 0 1 0 72
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Nonrhotic and rhotic vowels contribute to the standard score.
Nonrhotic and rhotic vowels contribute to the standard score.×
b Rhotic vowels contribute to the standard score.
Rhotic vowels contribute to the standard score.×
c Vowels do not contribute to the standard score.
Vowels do not contribute to the standard score.×
×
Table 6. Rank ordering of tests by mean ranks for word complexity, mean number of clusters per stimulus item, and mean number of syllables per stimulus item.
Rank ordering of tests by mean ranks for word complexity, mean number of clusters per stimulus item, and mean number of syllables per stimulus item.×
Order Test WCM Test Clusters Test Syllables
1 HAPP-3 399.45 HAPP-3 0.66 LAT 1.62
2 GFTA-2 367.40 DEAP-P 0.48 DEAP-P 1.60
3 CAAP-2 360.30 SHAPE 0.43 SPAT-DII 1.58
4 LAT 357.88 GFTA-2 0.42 GFTA-2 1.55
5 PAT-3 347.71 PAT-3 0.41 CAAP-2 1.50
6 DEAP-P 347.64 LAT 0.37 PAT-3 1.47
7 SPAT-DII 344.30 SPAT-DII 0.33 GFTA-3 1.47
8 GFTA-3 321.67 AAPS-3 0.33 HAPP-3 1.44
9 SHAPE 313.43 GFTA-3 0.30 BBTOP 1.38
10 BBTOP 294.26 BBTOP 0.26 AAPS-3 1.30
11 DEAP-A 283.20 CAAP-2 0.25 SHAPE 1.23
12 AAPS-3 279.22 DEAP-A 0.17 DEAP-A 1.20
Note. WCM = Word Complexity Measure; HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest.
Note. WCM = Word Complexity Measure; HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest.×
Table 6. Rank ordering of tests by mean ranks for word complexity, mean number of clusters per stimulus item, and mean number of syllables per stimulus item.
Rank ordering of tests by mean ranks for word complexity, mean number of clusters per stimulus item, and mean number of syllables per stimulus item.×
Order Test WCM Test Clusters Test Syllables
1 HAPP-3 399.45 HAPP-3 0.66 LAT 1.62
2 GFTA-2 367.40 DEAP-P 0.48 DEAP-P 1.60
3 CAAP-2 360.30 SHAPE 0.43 SPAT-DII 1.58
4 LAT 357.88 GFTA-2 0.42 GFTA-2 1.55
5 PAT-3 347.71 PAT-3 0.41 CAAP-2 1.50
6 DEAP-P 347.64 LAT 0.37 PAT-3 1.47
7 SPAT-DII 344.30 SPAT-DII 0.33 GFTA-3 1.47
8 GFTA-3 321.67 AAPS-3 0.33 HAPP-3 1.44
9 SHAPE 313.43 GFTA-3 0.30 BBTOP 1.38
10 BBTOP 294.26 BBTOP 0.26 AAPS-3 1.30
11 DEAP-A 283.20 CAAP-2 0.25 SHAPE 1.23
12 AAPS-3 279.22 DEAP-A 0.17 DEAP-A 1.20
Note. WCM = Word Complexity Measure; HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest.
Note. WCM = Word Complexity Measure; HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest.×
×
Table 7. Number of stimulus items containing zero, one, and two consonant clusters and total number of consonant clusters across all stimulus items in each test.
Number of stimulus items containing zero, one, and two consonant clusters and total number of consonant clusters across all stimulus items in each test.×
Test 0 1 2 Total clusters
AAPS-3 32 12 1 14
BBTOP 59 20 0 20
CAAP-2 33 11 0 11
DEAP-A 25 5 0 5
DEAP-P 28 20 2 24
GFTA-2 32 20 1 22
GFTA-3 42 18 0 18
HAPP-3 22 24 5 34
LAT 34 17 1 19
PAT-3 49 23 4 31
SHAPE a 49 29 3 35
SPAT-DII 31 13 1 15
Note. The first three columns report the number of stimulus items that contain zero, one, and two clusters. No stimulus items contain three clusters. Total clusters refer to the total number of clusters across all stimulus items. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. The first three columns report the number of stimulus items that contain zero, one, and two clusters. No stimulus items contain three clusters. Total clusters refer to the total number of clusters across all stimulus items. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Contains the most consonant clusters.
Contains the most consonant clusters.×
Table 7. Number of stimulus items containing zero, one, and two consonant clusters and total number of consonant clusters across all stimulus items in each test.
Number of stimulus items containing zero, one, and two consonant clusters and total number of consonant clusters across all stimulus items in each test.×
Test 0 1 2 Total clusters
AAPS-3 32 12 1 14
BBTOP 59 20 0 20
CAAP-2 33 11 0 11
DEAP-A 25 5 0 5
DEAP-P 28 20 2 24
GFTA-2 32 20 1 22
GFTA-3 42 18 0 18
HAPP-3 22 24 5 34
LAT 34 17 1 19
PAT-3 49 23 4 31
SHAPE a 49 29 3 35
SPAT-DII 31 13 1 15
Note. The first three columns report the number of stimulus items that contain zero, one, and two clusters. No stimulus items contain three clusters. Total clusters refer to the total number of clusters across all stimulus items. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. The first three columns report the number of stimulus items that contain zero, one, and two clusters. No stimulus items contain three clusters. Total clusters refer to the total number of clusters across all stimulus items. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Contains the most consonant clusters.
Contains the most consonant clusters.×
×
Table 8. Numbers and types of syllable-initial consonant clusters in each test.
Numbers and types of syllable-initial consonant clusters in each test.×
Test /s/ /r/ /l/ Glide Nasal Total
AAPS-3 st(2) tr(2), gr pl 6
BBTOP sn, st(2), sk, sl br(2), tr, kr(2) kl(2), fl(2), sl sn 14
CAAP-2 sn, sw, sk br, tr, gr kl, gl, fl pj, sw sn 10
DEAP-A sn br, kr sn 3
DEAP-P a sn, sw, sp, sk, skw, spl, str pr, br(4), tr, kr, fr, θr, str gl, spl kw, sw, skw sn 18
GFTA-2 sw, sp, st, sl br, tr, dr, kr, gr, fr pl, bl, kl, gl, fl, sl kw, sw 16
GFTA-3 sw, sp, st, sl pr, br(3), tr, dr, kr, gr, fr pl, bl, gl, sl kw, sw 17
HAPP-3 a sm, sn, sw, sp, st, sl, skw, str, skr br, tr, dr, kr, gr, θr, str, skr pl, bl, kl, gl(2), fl, sl mj, kw, kj, sw, skw mj, sm, sn 24
LAT sm, st, sk pr, br(3), tr, dr, kr, gr, fr pl, bl, kl, gl, fl sm 17
PAT-3 sw, sp, st(2), sk br(2), tr, kr(2) bl, kl, gl, fl(2) sw 15
SHAPE a , b sm, sn(2), sw, sp(2), st, sk, sl, spl, spr, str, skw, skr pr, br(2), tr, dr, kr, gr, fr, θr, spr, str, skr pl, bl, kl(2), gl(2), fl, sl, spl tw, kw, sw, skw sm, sn (2) 32
SPAT-DII sn, sw, st, sl br(3), tr, dr, kr bl, fl, sl sw sn 12
Note. Clusters are included in more than one column if they represent more than one type (e.g., /sl/ is included in both /s/ and /l/ columns). Total reflects the total number of clusters in each test (e.g., while included in both /s/ and /l/ columns, /sl/ is counted only once). AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. Clusters are included in more than one column if they represent more than one type (e.g., /sl/ is included in both /s/ and /l/ columns). Total reflects the total number of clusters in each test (e.g., while included in both /s/ and /l/ columns, /sl/ is counted only once). AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Contains three-element consonant clusters.
Contains three-element consonant clusters.×
b Contains the most syllable-initial consonant clusters.
Contains the most syllable-initial consonant clusters.×
Table 8. Numbers and types of syllable-initial consonant clusters in each test.
Numbers and types of syllable-initial consonant clusters in each test.×
Test /s/ /r/ /l/ Glide Nasal Total
AAPS-3 st(2) tr(2), gr pl 6
BBTOP sn, st(2), sk, sl br(2), tr, kr(2) kl(2), fl(2), sl sn 14
CAAP-2 sn, sw, sk br, tr, gr kl, gl, fl pj, sw sn 10
DEAP-A sn br, kr sn 3
DEAP-P a sn, sw, sp, sk, skw, spl, str pr, br(4), tr, kr, fr, θr, str gl, spl kw, sw, skw sn 18
GFTA-2 sw, sp, st, sl br, tr, dr, kr, gr, fr pl, bl, kl, gl, fl, sl kw, sw 16
GFTA-3 sw, sp, st, sl pr, br(3), tr, dr, kr, gr, fr pl, bl, gl, sl kw, sw 17
HAPP-3 a sm, sn, sw, sp, st, sl, skw, str, skr br, tr, dr, kr, gr, θr, str, skr pl, bl, kl, gl(2), fl, sl mj, kw, kj, sw, skw mj, sm, sn 24
LAT sm, st, sk pr, br(3), tr, dr, kr, gr, fr pl, bl, kl, gl, fl sm 17
PAT-3 sw, sp, st(2), sk br(2), tr, kr(2) bl, kl, gl, fl(2) sw 15
SHAPE a , b sm, sn(2), sw, sp(2), st, sk, sl, spl, spr, str, skw, skr pr, br(2), tr, dr, kr, gr, fr, θr, spr, str, skr pl, bl, kl(2), gl(2), fl, sl, spl tw, kw, sw, skw sm, sn (2) 32
SPAT-DII sn, sw, st, sl br(3), tr, dr, kr bl, fl, sl sw sn 12
Note. Clusters are included in more than one column if they represent more than one type (e.g., /sl/ is included in both /s/ and /l/ columns). Total reflects the total number of clusters in each test (e.g., while included in both /s/ and /l/ columns, /sl/ is counted only once). AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. Clusters are included in more than one column if they represent more than one type (e.g., /sl/ is included in both /s/ and /l/ columns). Total reflects the total number of clusters in each test (e.g., while included in both /s/ and /l/ columns, /sl/ is counted only once). AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Contains three-element consonant clusters.
Contains three-element consonant clusters.×
b Contains the most syllable-initial consonant clusters.
Contains the most syllable-initial consonant clusters.×
×
Table 9. Numbers and types of syllable-final consonant clusters in each test.
Numbers and types of syllable-final consonant clusters in each test.×
/s, z/ /r/ /l/ Nasal Total
AAPS-3 st, ps, ts, ks, rs rk, rs ld mp 8
BBTOP st rd lk mp, nt, nd 6
CAAP-2 nt 1
DEAP-A gz 2
DEAP-P vz nt(2), nd, nʤ, ŋk 6
GFTA-2 nz, lz, rz rz lz mp(2), nz, nʤ 6
GFTA-3 nt 1
HAPP-3 sk, ts, ks, rs, nz, bz, dz rk, rs dl mp, nz 10
LAT nz rd nz 2
PAT-3 a ts(2), ks, nz(2), lz(3), rz(2) rk, rz(2) lz(3) mp, nt, nd, nz(2), nʤ, ŋk 16
SHAPE nz(2) nt, nz(2) 3
SPAT-DII ks nt, nʤ 3
Note. Clusters are included in more than one column if they represent more than one type (e.g., /rs/ is included in both /s/ and /r/ columns). Total reflects the total number of clusters in each test (e.g., while included in both /s/ and /r/ columns, /rs/ is counted only once). AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. Clusters are included in more than one column if they represent more than one type (e.g., /rs/ is included in both /s/ and /r/ columns). Total reflects the total number of clusters in each test (e.g., while included in both /s/ and /r/ columns, /rs/ is counted only once). AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Contains the most syllable-final consonant clusters.
Contains the most syllable-final consonant clusters.×
Table 9. Numbers and types of syllable-final consonant clusters in each test.
Numbers and types of syllable-final consonant clusters in each test.×
/s, z/ /r/ /l/ Nasal Total
AAPS-3 st, ps, ts, ks, rs rk, rs ld mp 8
BBTOP st rd lk mp, nt, nd 6
CAAP-2 nt 1
DEAP-A gz 2
DEAP-P vz nt(2), nd, nʤ, ŋk 6
GFTA-2 nz, lz, rz rz lz mp(2), nz, nʤ 6
GFTA-3 nt 1
HAPP-3 sk, ts, ks, rs, nz, bz, dz rk, rs dl mp, nz 10
LAT nz rd nz 2
PAT-3 a ts(2), ks, nz(2), lz(3), rz(2) rk, rz(2) lz(3) mp, nt, nd, nz(2), nʤ, ŋk 16
SHAPE nz(2) nt, nz(2) 3
SPAT-DII ks nt, nʤ 3
Note. Clusters are included in more than one column if they represent more than one type (e.g., /rs/ is included in both /s/ and /r/ columns). Total reflects the total number of clusters in each test (e.g., while included in both /s/ and /r/ columns, /rs/ is counted only once). AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. Clusters are included in more than one column if they represent more than one type (e.g., /rs/ is included in both /s/ and /r/ columns). Total reflects the total number of clusters in each test (e.g., while included in both /s/ and /r/ columns, /rs/ is counted only once). AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Contains the most syllable-final consonant clusters.
Contains the most syllable-final consonant clusters.×
×
Table 10. Number of stimulus items in each test containing one, two, three, and four syllables.
Number of stimulus items in each test containing one, two, three, and four syllables.×
Test 1 syllable 2 syllables 3 syllables 4 syllables
AAPS-3 34 11 0 1
BBTOP 58 14 8 0
CAAP-2 33 2 7 2
DEAP-A 26 3 0 1
DEAP-P 26 19 4 1
GFTA-2 27 23 3 0
GFTA-3 35 22 3 0
HAPP-3 33 13 3 1
LAT 27 19 5 1
PAT-3 a 44 28 4 0
SHAPE 67 11 1 2
SPAT-DII 21 22 2 0
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Contains the most multisyllabic stimulus items.
Contains the most multisyllabic stimulus items.×
Table 10. Number of stimulus items in each test containing one, two, three, and four syllables.
Number of stimulus items in each test containing one, two, three, and four syllables.×
Test 1 syllable 2 syllables 3 syllables 4 syllables
AAPS-3 34 11 0 1
BBTOP 58 14 8 0
CAAP-2 33 2 7 2
DEAP-A 26 3 0 1
DEAP-P 26 19 4 1
GFTA-2 27 23 3 0
GFTA-3 35 22 3 0
HAPP-3 33 13 3 1
LAT 27 19 5 1
PAT-3 a 44 28 4 0
SHAPE 67 11 1 2
SPAT-DII 21 22 2 0
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Contains the most multisyllabic stimulus items.
Contains the most multisyllabic stimulus items.×
×
Table 11. Number of stimulus items containing bound morphemes, bound morphemes with complex phonological structures, and scored bound morphemes.
Number of stimulus items containing bound morphemes, bound morphemes with complex phonological structures, and scored bound morphemes.×
Test No. of bound morphemes No. of complex structures No. of scored morphemes
AAPS-3 5 3 2
BBTOP 1 0 1
CAAP-2 a 0 0 0
DEAP-A 1 1 1
DEAP-P 3 1 3
GFTA-2 12 3 1
GFTA-3 4 0 4
HAPP-3 7 4 7
LAT 7 1 5
PAT-3 18 10 0
SHAPE 2 2 0
SPAT-DII 9 1 2
Range 0–18 0–10 0–7
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Contains the fewest bound morphemes.
Contains the fewest bound morphemes.×
Table 11. Number of stimulus items containing bound morphemes, bound morphemes with complex phonological structures, and scored bound morphemes.
Number of stimulus items containing bound morphemes, bound morphemes with complex phonological structures, and scored bound morphemes.×
Test No. of bound morphemes No. of complex structures No. of scored morphemes
AAPS-3 5 3 2
BBTOP 1 0 1
CAAP-2 a 0 0 0
DEAP-A 1 1 1
DEAP-P 3 1 3
GFTA-2 12 3 1
GFTA-3 4 0 4
HAPP-3 7 4 7
LAT 7 1 5
PAT-3 18 10 0
SHAPE 2 2 0
SPAT-DII 9 1 2
Range 0–18 0–10 0–7
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).
Note. AAPS-3 = Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale–Third Edition (Fudala, 2000); BBTOP = Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (Bankson & Bernthal, 1990); CAAP-2 = Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology–Second Edition (Secord & Donahue, 2014); DEAP-A = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Articulation Subtest; DEAP-P = Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology–American Edition (Dodd et al., 2006)—Phonology Subtest; GFTA-2 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2000); GFTA-3 = Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Third Edition (Goldman & Fristoe, 2015); HAPP-3 = Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns–Third Edition (Hodson, 2004); LAT = LinguiSystems Articulation Test (Bowers & Huisingh, 2010); PAT-3 = Photo Articulation Test–Third Edition (Lippke et al., 1997); SHAPE = Smit–Hand Articulation and Phonology Evaluation (Smit & Hand, 1992); SPAT-DII = Structured Photographic Articulation Test–Second Edition featuring Dudsberry (Dawson & Tattersall, 2001).×
a Contains the fewest bound morphemes.
Contains the fewest bound morphemes.×
×