Assessing the Reliability and Use of the Expository Scoring Scheme as a Measure of Developmental Change in Monolingual English and Bilingual French/English Children Purpose The Expository Scoring Scheme (ESS) is designed to analyze the macrostructure of descriptions of a favorite game or sport. This pilot study examined inter- and intrarater reliability of the ESS and use of the scale to capture developmental change in elementary school children. Method Twenty-four children in ... Research Article
Research Article  |   October 01, 2016
Assessing the Reliability and Use of the Expository Scoring Scheme as a Measure of Developmental Change in Monolingual English and Bilingual French/English Children
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Elizabeth Kay-Raining Bird
    Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • Nila Joshi
    Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • Patricia L. Cleave
    Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Elizabeth Kay-Raining Bird: rainbird@dal.ca
  • Editor: Marilyn Nippold
    Editor: Marilyn Nippold×
  • Associate Editor: Jeannene Ward-Lonergan
    Associate Editor: Jeannene Ward-Lonergan×
Article Information
Cultural & Linguistic Diversity / Research Issues, Methods & Evidence-Based Practice / Research Articles
Research Article   |   October 01, 2016
Assessing the Reliability and Use of the Expository Scoring Scheme as a Measure of Developmental Change in Monolingual English and Bilingual French/English Children
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, October 2016, Vol. 47, 297-312. doi:10.1044/2016_LSHSS-15-0029
History: Received June 1, 2015 , Revised December 10, 2015 , Accepted April 12, 2016
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, October 2016, Vol. 47, 297-312. doi:10.1044/2016_LSHSS-15-0029
History: Received June 1, 2015; Revised December 10, 2015; Accepted April 12, 2016

Purpose The Expository Scoring Scheme (ESS) is designed to analyze the macrostructure of descriptions of a favorite game or sport. This pilot study examined inter- and intrarater reliability of the ESS and use of the scale to capture developmental change in elementary school children.

Method Twenty-four children in 2 language groups (monolingual English and bilingual French/English) and 2 age groups (7–8 years, 11–12 years) participated (6 in each subgroup). Participants orally explained how to play their favorite game or sport in English. Expository discourse samples were rated for 10 macrostructure components using the ESS. Ratings were summed for a total score.

Results Inter- and intrarater reliability was high for the total ESS score and for some but not all ESS components. In addition, the total score and ratings for many ESS components increased with age. Few differences were found in use of macrostructure components across language groups.

Conclusions The ESS captures developmental change in the use of expository macrostructure in spoken discourse samples. It may be beneficial to take into account the lower reliability found for ratings of some ESS components in clinical practice. Due to the small sample size, these results should be considered preliminary and interpreted with caution.

Acknowledgments
We would like to thank the families who participated in this study, Pierre Cormier for his assistance in designing the larger study, and several research assistants for their considerable help, especially Bonita Squires.
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