The Effects of Visual Stimuli on the Spoken Narrative Performance of School-Age African American Children Purpose This study investigated the fictional narrative performance of school-age African American children across 3 elicitation contexts that differed in the type of visual stimulus presented. Method A total of 54 children in Grades 2 through 5 produced narratives across 3 different visual conditions: no visual, picture sequence, ... Research Article
Research Article  |   October 01, 2015
The Effects of Visual Stimuli on the Spoken Narrative Performance of School-Age African American Children
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Monique T. Mills
    The Ohio State University, Columbus
  • Disclosure: The author has declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The author has declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Monique T. Mills: mills.298@osu.edu
  • Editor: Marilyn Nippold
    Editor: Marilyn Nippold×
  • Associate Editor: Sonja Pruitt-Lord
    Associate Editor: Sonja Pruitt-Lord×
Article Information
Cultural & Linguistic Diversity / School-Based Settings / Research Articles
Research Article   |   October 01, 2015
The Effects of Visual Stimuli on the Spoken Narrative Performance of School-Age African American Children
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, October 2015, Vol. 46, 337-351. doi:10.1044/2015_LSHSS-14-0070
History: Received July 13, 2014 , Revised December 13, 2014 , Accepted May 29, 2015
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, October 2015, Vol. 46, 337-351. doi:10.1044/2015_LSHSS-14-0070
History: Received July 13, 2014; Revised December 13, 2014; Accepted May 29, 2015
Web of Science® Times Cited: 3

Purpose This study investigated the fictional narrative performance of school-age African American children across 3 elicitation contexts that differed in the type of visual stimulus presented.

Method A total of 54 children in Grades 2 through 5 produced narratives across 3 different visual conditions: no visual, picture sequence, and single picture. Narratives were examined for visual condition differences in expressive elaboration rate, number of different word roots (NDW) rate, mean length of utterance in words, and dialect density. The relationship between diagnostic risk for language impairment and narrative variables was explored.

Results Expressive elaboration rate and mean length of utterance in words were higher in the no-visual condition than in either the picture-sequence or the single-picture conditions. NDW rate was higher in the no-visual and picture-sequence conditions than in the single-picture condition. Dialect density performance across visual context depended on the child's grade, so that younger children produced a higher rate of African American English in the no-visual condition than did older children. Diagnostic risk was related to NDW rate and dialect density measure.

Conclusion The results suggest the need for narrative elicitation contexts that include verbal as well as visual tasks to fully describe the narrative performance of school-age African American children with typical development.

Acknowledgments
I am grateful for a Social and Behavioral Sciences Small Grant, which provided seed money to conduct the study. I am also grateful to the children who participated, to the parents who granted them permission, and to the school staff who created space for data collection. Many thanks to the research assistants who helped code narrative data. This study was approved by the Behavioral and Social Sciences Institutional Review Board at The Ohio State University.
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