Reading Skills of Students With Speech Sound Disorders at Three Stages of Literacy Development PurposeThe relationship between phonological awareness, overall language, vocabulary, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills to decoding and reading comprehension was examined for students at 3 stages of literacy development (i.e., early elementary school, middle school, and high school). Students with histories of speech sound disorders (SSD) with and without language impairment (LI) ... Research Article
Research Article  |   October 2013
Reading Skills of Students With Speech Sound Disorders at Three Stages of Literacy Development
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Crysten M. Skebo
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH
  • Barbara A. Lewis
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH
  • Lisa A. Freebairn
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH
  • Jessica Tag
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH
  • Allison Avrich Ciesla
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH
  • Catherine M. Stein
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH
  • Correspondence to Barbara A. Lewis: barbara.lewis@case.edu
  • Editor: Marilyn Nippold
    Editor: Marilyn Nippold×
  • Associate Editor: Sally Marinellie
    Associate Editor: Sally Marinellie×
  • © American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
Article Information
Development / Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / School-Based Settings / Normal Language Processing / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Research Article
Research Article   |   October 2013
Reading Skills of Students With Speech Sound Disorders at Three Stages of Literacy Development
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, October 2013, Vol. 44, 360-373. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2013/12-0015)
History: Received February 6, 2012 , Revised June 20, 2012 , Accepted May 10, 2013
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, October 2013, Vol. 44, 360-373. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2013/12-0015)
History: Received February 6, 2012; Revised June 20, 2012; Accepted May 10, 2013
Web of Science® Times Cited: 3
Acknowledgments
The original study was supported by Grant DC000528 from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, awarded to Barbara A. Lewis (Principal Investigator), and was conducted in conjunction with the Case Western Reserve University, Department of Psychological Sciences. We wish to thank all of the families who participated in the study and all of the talented researchers who participated in the collection and analysis of data.

PurposeThe relationship between phonological awareness, overall language, vocabulary, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills to decoding and reading comprehension was examined for students at 3 stages of literacy development (i.e., early elementary school, middle school, and high school). Students with histories of speech sound disorders (SSD) with and without language impairment (LI) were compared to students without histories of SSD or LI (typical language; TL).

MethodIn a cross-sectional design, students ages 7;0 (years;months) to 17;9 completed tests that measured reading, language, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills.

ResultsFor the TL group, phonological awareness predicted decoding at early elementary school, and overall language predicted reading comprehension at early elementary school and both decoding and reading comprehension at middle school and high school. For the SSD-only group, vocabulary predicted both decoding and reading comprehension at early elementary school, and overall language predicted both decoding and reading comprehension at middle school and decoding at high school. For the SSD and LI group, overall language predicted decoding at all 3 literacy stages and reading comprehension at early elementary school and middle school, and vocabulary predicted reading comprehension at high school.

ConclusionAlthough similar skills contribute to reading across the age span, the relative importance of these skills changes with children's literacy stages.

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