The Relation of Linguistic Awareness and Vocabulary to Word Reading and Spelling for First-Grade Students Participating in Response to Intervention Purpose The relations of phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling were examined for 304 first-grade children who were receiving differentiated instruction in a Response to Intervention (RtI) model of instruction. Method First-grade children were assessed on their phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness; ... Research Article
Research Article  |   October 01, 2013
The Relation of Linguistic Awareness and Vocabulary to Word Reading and Spelling for First-Grade Students Participating in Response to Intervention
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Young-Suk Kim
    Florida State University and Florida Center for Reading Research, Tallahassee
  • Kenn Apel
    University of South Carolina, Columbia
  • Stephanie Al Otaiba
    Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX
  • Correspondence to Young-Suk Kim: ykim@fcrr.org
  • Editor: Marilyn Nippold
    Editor: Marilyn Nippold×
  • Associate Editor: Victoria Joffe
    Associate Editor: Victoria Joffe×
Article Information
Development / School-Based Settings / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Research Articles
Research Article   |   October 01, 2013
The Relation of Linguistic Awareness and Vocabulary to Word Reading and Spelling for First-Grade Students Participating in Response to Intervention
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, October 2013, Vol. 44, 337-347. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2013/12-0013)
History: Received February 8, 2012 , Revised November 19, 2012 , Accepted May 8, 2013
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, October 2013, Vol. 44, 337-347. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2013/12-0013)
History: Received February 8, 2012; Revised November 19, 2012; Accepted May 8, 2013
Web of Science® Times Cited: 5

Purpose The relations of phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling were examined for 304 first-grade children who were receiving differentiated instruction in a Response to Intervention (RtI) model of instruction.

Method First-grade children were assessed on their phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness; expressive vocabulary; word reading; and spelling. Year-end word reading and spelling were outcome variables, and phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness; expressive vocabulary; and RtI status (Tiers 1, 2, & 3) were predictor variables.

Results The 3 linguistic awareness skills were unique predictors of word reading, and phonological and orthographic awareness were unique predictors of spelling. The contributions that these linguistic awareness skills and vocabulary made to word reading and spelling did not differ by children's RtI tier status.

Conclusion These results, in conjunction with previous studies, suggest that even beginning readers and spellers draw on multiple linguistic awareness skills for their word reading and spelling regardless of their level of literacy abilities. Educational implications are discussed.

Acknowledgments
This work was partially supported by Grant P50 HD052120 from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development. The opinions expressed are ours and do not represent views of the funding agency. The authors wish to thank all of the participating schools, students, and parents.
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