Research Article  |   April 2013
Classroom Phonological Awareness Instruction and Literacy Outcomes in the First Year of School
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Karyn L. Carson
    Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia
  • Gail T. Gillon
    University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • Therese M. Boustead
    University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • Correspondence to Karyn L. Carson: karyn.carson@flinders.edu.au
  • Editor: Marilyn Nippold
    Editor: Marilyn Nippold×
  • Associate Editor: Gary Troia
    Associate Editor: Gary Troia×
Development / School-Based Settings / Normal Language Processing / Research Article
Research Article   |   April 2013
Classroom Phonological Awareness Instruction and Literacy Outcomes in the First Year of School
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools April 2013, Vol.44, 147-160. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2012/11-0061)
History: Accepted 06 Nov 2012 , Received 10 Aug 2011 , Revised 18 Dec 2011
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools April 2013, Vol.44, 147-160. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2012/11-0061)
History: Accepted 06 Nov 2012 , Received 10 Aug 2011 , Revised 18 Dec 2011

Purpose: Despite strong investment in raising literacy achievement for all children, significant inequalities in literacy outcomes continue to exist among some of the world's most advanced economies. This study investigated the influence of a short, intensive period of phonological awareness (PA) instruction implemented by classroom teachers on raising the literacy achievement of children with and without spoken language impairment (SLI).

Method: A quasi‐experimental design was employed to measure the PA, reading, and spelling development of one hundred twenty‐nine 5‐year‐olds. Thirty‐four children received 10 weeks of PA instruction from their teachers. Ninety‐five children continued with their usual reading program, which included phonics instruction but did not target PA.

Results: Children who received PA instruction demonstrated superior literacy outcomes compared to children who followed the usual literacy curriculum. Children with SLI showed significant improvements in PA, reading, and spelling but had a different pattern of response to instruction compared to children with typical language. Importantly, the number of children experiencing word decoding difficulties at the end of the program was 26% among children who followed the usual literacy curriculum compared to 6% among children who received the PA instruction.

Implications: A short, intensive period of classroom PA instruction can raise the literacy profiles of children with and without spoken language difficulties.

Order a Subscription
Pay Per View
Entire Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools content & archive
24-hour access
This Article
24-hour access

Related Articles

Designing Quality Tier One Learning Environments for Emergent and Early Readers
SIG 1 Perspectives on Language Learning and Education March 2008, Vol.15, 4-12. doi:10.1044/lle15.1.4
Language and Literacy Curriculum Supplement for Preschoolers Who Are Academically At Risk: A Feasibility Study
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools April 2010, Vol.41, 161-178. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2009/08-0058)
The Fatal Flaw: What It Is and How to Avoid It
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools January 2011, Vol.42, 1-2. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2011/ed-01)
Accelerating Preschoolers' Early Literacy Development Through Classroom-Based Teacher–Child Storybook Reading and Explicit Print Referencing
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools January 2009, Vol.40, 67-85. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2008/07-0098)
Facilitating Emergent Literacy: Efficacy of a Model That Partners Speech-Language Pathologists and Educators
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology February 2012, Vol.21, 47-63. doi:10.1044/1058-0360(2011/11-0002)