Preliteracy Speech Sound Production Skill and Later Literacy Outcomes: A Study Using the Templin Archive Purpose This archival study examined the relationship between the speech sound production skill of kindergarten children and literacy outcomes in Grades 1–3 in a data set where most children’s vocabulary skills were within normal limits, speech therapy was not provided until 2nd grade, and phonological awareness instruction was discouraged at ... Research Article
Research Article  |   January 01, 2012
Preliteracy Speech Sound Production Skill and Later Literacy Outcomes: A Study Using the Templin Archive
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Megan S. Overby
    The College of Saint Rose, Albany, NY
  • Guy Trainin
    University of Nebraska–Lincoln
  • Ann Bosma Smit
    Kansas State University, Manhattan
  • John E. Bernthal
    University of Nebraska–Lincoln
  • Ron Nelson
    University of Nebraska–Lincoln
  • Correspondence to Megan S. Overby: overbym@strose.edu
  • Editor: Marilyn Nippold
    Editor: Marilyn Nippold×
  • Associate Editor: Amy Weiss
    Associate Editor: Amy Weiss×
Article Information
Development / Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Normal Language Processing / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Research Articles
Research Article   |   January 01, 2012
Preliteracy Speech Sound Production Skill and Later Literacy Outcomes: A Study Using the Templin Archive
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, January 2012, Vol. 43, 97-115. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2011/10-0064)
History: Received July 19, 2010 , Revised January 31, 2011 , Accepted July 15, 2011
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, January 2012, Vol. 43, 97-115. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2011/10-0064)
History: Received July 19, 2010; Revised January 31, 2011; Accepted July 15, 2011
Web of Science® Times Cited: 10

Purpose This archival study examined the relationship between the speech sound production skill of kindergarten children and literacy outcomes in Grades 1–3 in a data set where most children’s vocabulary skills were within normal limits, speech therapy was not provided until 2nd grade, and phonological awareness instruction was discouraged at the time data were collected.

Method Data were accessed from the Templin Archive (2004), and the speech sound production skill of 272 kindergartners were examined relative to literacy outcomes in 1st and 2nd grade (reading) and 3rd grade (spelling).

Results Kindergartners in the 7th percentile for speech sound production skill scored more poorly in 1st- and 2nd-grade reading and 3rd-grade spelling than did kindergartners with average speech sound production skill; kindergartners in the 98th percentile achieved superior literacy skills compared to the mean. Phonological awareness mediated the effects of speech sound production skill on reading and spelling; vocabulary did not account for any unique variance.

Conclusion Speech sound disorders appear to be an overt manifestation of a complex interaction among variables influencing literacy skills, including nonlanguage cognition, vocabulary, letter knowledge, and phonological awareness. These interrelationships hold across the range of speech sound production skill, as children with superior speech sound production skill experience superior literacy outcomes.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The Templin Archive was catalogued and made available to the scientific community through a personal services contract with the third author from the National Institute of Deafness and Communication Disorders (2004–2005). The authors are grateful to Dallas Johnson for his statistical support and especially to Mildred Templin for her invaluable contributions to this investigation. Templin died in October 2008.
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