The Effects of a Sound-Field Amplification System on Managerial Time in Middle School Physical Education Settings Purpose The focus of this research effort was to examine the effect of a sound-field amplification system on managerial time in the beginning of class in a physical education setting. Method A multiple baseline design across participants was used to measure change in the managerial time of 2 ... Research Article
Research Article  |   April 01, 2009
The Effects of a Sound-Field Amplification System on Managerial Time in Middle School Physical Education Settings
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Stu Ryan
    University of West Florida, Pensacola
  • Contact author: Stu Ryan, University of West Florida, 11000 University Parkway, #72-259, Pensacola, FL 32514. E-mail: sryan@uwf.edu.
Article Information
Audiologic / Aural Rehabilitation / School-Based Settings / Research Articles
Research Article   |   April 01, 2009
The Effects of a Sound-Field Amplification System on Managerial Time in Middle School Physical Education Settings
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, April 2009, Vol. 40, 131-137. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2008/08-0038)
History: Received April 9, 2008 , Revised May 5, 2008 , Accepted August 5, 2008
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, April 2009, Vol. 40, 131-137. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2008/08-0038)
History: Received April 9, 2008; Revised May 5, 2008; Accepted August 5, 2008
Web of Science® Times Cited: 4

Purpose The focus of this research effort was to examine the effect of a sound-field amplification system on managerial time in the beginning of class in a physical education setting.

Method A multiple baseline design across participants was used to measure change in the managerial time of 2 middle school female physical education teachers using a portable sound-field amplification system. Managerial time is defined as the cumulative amount of time that students spend on organizational, transitional, and nonsubject matter tasks in a lesson.

Results The findings showed that the amount of managerial time at the beginning of class clearly decreased when the teacher used sound-field amplification feedback to physical education students.

Conclusion Findings indicate an immediate need for administrators to determine the most appropriate, cost-effective procedure to support sound-field amplification systems in existing physical education settings.

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