The Effect of Tier 2 Intervention for Phonemic Awareness in a Response-to-Intervention Model in Low-Income Preschool Classrooms Purpose This study assessed the effectiveness of a Tier 2 intervention that was designed to increase the phonemic awareness skills of low-income preschoolers who were enrolled in Early Reading First classrooms. Method Thirty-four preschoolers participated in a multiple baseline across participants treatment design. Tier 2 intervention for beginning ... Research Article
Research Article  |   April 01, 2009
The Effect of Tier 2 Intervention for Phonemic Awareness in a Response-to-Intervention Model in Low-Income Preschool Classrooms
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Anthony D. Koutsoftas
    Arizona State University, Tempe
  • Mary Towle Harmon
    Arizona State University, Tempe
  • Shelley Gray
    Arizona State University, Tempe
  • Contact author: Anthony D. Koutsoftas, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 870102, Tempe, AZ 85287-0102. E-mail: Anthony.koutsoftas@asu.edu.
Article Information
Development / School-Based Settings / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Research Articles
Research Article   |   April 01, 2009
The Effect of Tier 2 Intervention for Phonemic Awareness in a Response-to-Intervention Model in Low-Income Preschool Classrooms
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, April 2009, Vol. 40, 116-130. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2008/07-0101)
History: Received December 21, 2007 , Revised April 28, 2008 , Accepted August 5, 2008
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, April 2009, Vol. 40, 116-130. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2008/07-0101)
History: Received December 21, 2007; Revised April 28, 2008; Accepted August 5, 2008
Web of Science® Times Cited: 17

Purpose This study assessed the effectiveness of a Tier 2 intervention that was designed to increase the phonemic awareness skills of low-income preschoolers who were enrolled in Early Reading First classrooms.

Method Thirty-four preschoolers participated in a multiple baseline across participants treatment design. Tier 2 intervention for beginning sound awareness was provided twice weekly in small groups over 6 weeks by trained teachers and speech-language pathologists (SLPs).

Results The intervention was successful for 71% of the children, as indicated by medium to large effect sizes. Comparisons between children who did and did not qualify for intervention suggest that Tier 2 intervention helped narrow the gap in beginning sound awareness that had begun to emerge before treatment. Although children receiving special education and those learning English as a second language were enrolled in the classrooms, they were not overrepresented in the group qualifying for Tier 2 intervention, and most who did qualify demonstrated a positive response to intervention.

Conclusion In a relatively short period of time, preschoolers' phonemic awareness skills were increased through small-group Tier 2 intervention provided by teachers and SLPs. Findings indicate the potential of Tier 2 interventions to positively impact the future reading skills of children who are at risk for later reading difficulties.

Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank the children, families, and teaching teams who participated in this project. Special thanks are extended to our Tier 2 interventionists and double scorers, Rachel Learn, Ariana Lopez, Stephanie Williams, and Cathy Otto. This work was funded by U.S. Department of Education Grant S359B040078.
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