An Investigation of Treatment Scheduling for Phonemic Awareness With Kindergartners Who Are at Risk for Reading Difficulties PurposeThis study examined 2 schedules of treatment for phonemic awareness.MethodForty-one 5- to 6-year-old kindergartners, including 22 English learners, with low letter-name and first-sound knowledge received 11 hr of phonemic awareness treatment: concentrated (CP, 3x/wk to December), dispersed (DP, 1x/wk to March), and dispersed vocabulary control (CON).ResultsEnglish learners performed similarly to ... Report
Report  |   January 2009
An Investigation of Treatment Scheduling for Phonemic Awareness With Kindergartners Who Are at Risk for Reading Difficulties
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Teresa A. Ukrainetz
    University of Wyoming, Laramie
  • Catherine L. Ross
    Teton County School District #1, Jackson, WY
  • Heide M. Harm
    Teton County School District #1, Jackson, WY
  • Contact author: Teresa A. Ukrainetz, Division of Communication Disorders, University of Wyoming, Department 3311, 1000 East University Avenue, Laramie, WY 82071-3311. E-mail: tukraine@uwyo.edu.
  • © 2009 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
Article Information
Development / School-Based Settings / Language Disorders / Reading & Writing Disorders / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Speech, Voice & Prosody
Report   |   January 2009
An Investigation of Treatment Scheduling for Phonemic Awareness With Kindergartners Who Are at Risk for Reading Difficulties
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, January 2009, Vol. 40, 86-100. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2008/07-0077)
History: Received September 25, 2007 , Revised February 21, 2008 , Accepted May 27, 2008
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, January 2009, Vol. 40, 86-100. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2008/07-0077)
History: Received September 25, 2007; Revised February 21, 2008; Accepted May 27, 2008
Web of Science® Times Cited: 28
Acknowledgments
This project was carried out with a University of Wyoming Faculty Grant-In-Aid Award. Thanks go to Katrina Fisher, Kimberly Wilkerson, and Jessica Brody for research assistance. We would also like to acknowledge the children, parents, teachers, and administrators of Teton County School District. In addition, we offer particular thanks to Special Education Director Terry Miller for supporting this study, and to Ken Gerow of the University of Wyoming for statistical guidance.

PurposeThis study examined 2 schedules of treatment for phonemic awareness.

MethodForty-one 5- to 6-year-old kindergartners, including 22 English learners, with low letter-name and first-sound knowledge received 11 hr of phonemic awareness treatment: concentrated (CP, 3x/wk to December), dispersed (DP, 1x/wk to March), and dispersed vocabulary control (CON).

ResultsEnglish learners performed similarly to native English speakers. Participants with moderate deficits in letter-names and first sounds showed significant benefits after both treatment conditions. Three times the intensity had no additional effect on phonemic awareness. CP continued to increase significantly during the no-treatment interval. In March, CP and DP were significantly greater than CON, but the 2 conditions did not differ other than with a minor DP advantage on last sounds. By May, there were no significant differences among the 3 conditions in meeting grade-level expectations for phoneme segmenting.

ConclusionFor phonemic awareness, over the course of a school year, with concomitant classroom instruction, the gains made from short, intense treatment were similar to those made from continuous weekly treatment. At-risk kindergartners with moderate deficits benefited more than those with mild deficits. Children, particularly those with mild deficits, may improve substantially with only classroom instruction and incidental self-regulatory gains from treatment for another area.

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