School-Age Follow-Up of Children With Childhood Apraxia of Speech Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to examine differences in speech/language and written language skills between children with suspected childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) and children with other speech-sound disorders at school age. Method: Ten children (7 males and 3 females) who were clinically diagnosed with CAS (CAS ... Research Article
Research Article  |   April 01, 2004
School-Age Follow-Up of Children With Childhood Apraxia of Speech
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Barbara A. Lewis, PhD
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland
    Behavioral Pediatrics and Psychology 6038, Rainbow Babies and Childrens Hospital, Case Western Reserve University, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-6038
  • Lisa A. Freebairn
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland
  • Amy J. Hansen
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland
  • Sudha K. Iyengar
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland
  • H. Gerry Taylor
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland
  • Corresponding author: e-mail: bxl@po.cwru.edu
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Apraxia of Speech & Childhood Apraxia of Speech / School-Based Settings / Normal Language Processing / Language Disorders / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Research Articles
Research Article   |   April 01, 2004
School-Age Follow-Up of Children With Childhood Apraxia of Speech
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, April 2004, Vol. 35, 122-140. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2004/014)
History: Received December 3, 2002 , Accepted July 23, 2003
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, April 2004, Vol. 35, 122-140. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2004/014)
History: Received December 3, 2002; Accepted July 23, 2003

Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to examine differences in speech/language and written language skills between children with suspected childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) and children with other speech-sound disorders at school age.

Method: Ten children (7 males and 3 females) who were clinically diagnosed with CAS (CAS group) were followed from the preschool years (ages 4–6) to school age (ages 8–10) and were compared with children with isolated speech-sound disorders (S group; n=15) and combined speech-sound and language disorders (SL group; n=14). Assessments included measures of articulation, diadochokinetic rates, language, reading, and spelling.

Results: At follow-up, 8 of the children with CAS demonstrated improvement in articulation scores, but all 10 continued to have difficulties in syllable sequencing, nonsense word repetition, and language abilities. The children also exhibited comorbid disorders of reading and spelling. Group comparisons revealed that the CAS group was similar to the SL group, but not the S group during the preschool years. By school age, however, the SL group made more positive changes in language skills than the CAS group.

Clinical Implications: These findings suggest that the phenotype for CAS changes with age. Language disorders persist in these children despite partial resolution of articulation problems. Children with CAS are also at risk for reading and spelling problems.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Grant DC00528. We wish to express our appreciation to the speech-language pathologists who assisted us in recruiting subjects and to the families who generously agreed to participate.
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