Comparison of Three Approaches to Supplementary Reading Instruction for Low-Achieving Second-Grade Readers Purpose: This research evaluated the relative effectiveness of three instructional approaches to supplementing the regular reading program for second graders with low word reading and/or pseudoword reading skills. Method: In the instructional experiment, 96 second graders with low reading achievement were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (a) explicit ... Research Article
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Research Article  |   April 01, 2003
Comparison of Three Approaches to Supplementary Reading Instruction for Low-Achieving Second-Grade Readers
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Virginia W. Berninger
    University of Washington, Seattle
  • Karin Vermeulen
    University of Washington, Seattle
  • Robert D. Abbott
    University of Washington, Seattle
  • Deborah McCutchen
    University of Washington, Seattle
  • Susanna Cotton
    University of Washington, Seattle
  • Jennifer Cude
    University of Washington, Seattle
  • Susan Dorn
    University of Washington, Seattle
  • Tod Sharon
    University of Washington, Seattle
  • Contact author: Virginia W. Berninger, 322 Miller, Box 353600, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-3600.
    Contact author: Virginia W. Berninger, 322 Miller, Box 353600, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-3600.×
  • Corresponding author: e-mail: vwb@u.washington.edu
Article Information
Development / School-Based Settings / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Research Articles
Research Article   |   April 01, 2003
Comparison of Three Approaches to Supplementary Reading Instruction for Low-Achieving Second-Grade Readers
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, April 2003, Vol. 34, 101-116. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2003/009)
History: Received August 6, 2002 , Accepted December 4, 2002
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, April 2003, Vol. 34, 101-116. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2003/009)
History: Received August 6, 2002; Accepted December 4, 2002
Web of Science® Times Cited: 26

Purpose: This research evaluated the relative effectiveness of three instructional approaches to supplementing the regular reading program for second graders with low word reading and/or pseudoword reading skills.

Method: In the instructional experiment, 96 second graders with low reading achievement were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (a) explicit and reflective word recognition, (b) explicit and reflective reading comprehension, (c) combined explicit word recognition and explicit reading comprehension, or (d) treated control that only practiced reading skills without any instruction. In the extension study, these conditions were compared to an untreated control group of 29 second graders.

Results: In the instructional experiment, combined word recognition and reading comprehension treatment increased phonological decoding (pronouncing pseudowords) significantly more than the treated control or word recognition only treatment and had the highest effect size. The comprehension only treatment was not significantly different from the treated control. In the extension study, (a) the treated children receiving supplemental instruction improved significantly more in phonological decoding and reading real words than did those in the regular program, and (b) the combined word recognition and reading comprehension treatment, which was explicit, had the highest effect sizes for both pseudoword and real-word reading.

Clinical Implications: The most effective supplemental instruction for increasing phonological decoding was combining explicit word recognition and explicit reading comprehension training.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
P50 33812-05, a Multidisciplinary Learning Disabilities Center Grant from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, supported this research.
We thank the participating children at Adams, Montlake, Olympic View, and Sacajewa Schools in the Seattle School System; at Briarcrest, Meridian Park, and Ridgecrest in the Shoreline School System; and at St. Luke’s in the Archdiocese of Western Washington. The investigators also gratefully acknowledge the consultation of Robert Calfee in the planning stages of this study and the helpful comments of Joseph Jenkins, who read an earlier version of the manuscript. The last four authors contributed equally and are listed in alphabetic order.
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