Factors Affecting the Development of Speech, Language, and Literacy in Children With Early Cochlear Implantation Purpose: This study investigated factors contributing to auditory, speech, language, and reading outcomes in children with prelingual deafness after 4–6 years of multichannel cochlear implant use. The analysis controlled for the effects of child, family, and implant characteristics so that educational factors most conducive to maximum implant benefit could be ... Clinical Forum
Clinical Forum  |   July 01, 2002
Factors Affecting the Development of Speech, Language, and Literacy in Children With Early Cochlear Implantation
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Ann E. Geers
    Central Institute for the Deaf, St. Louis, MO
  • Corresponding author: e-mail: geers@cid.wustl.edu
Article Information
Development / Hearing Aids, Cochlear Implants & Assistive Technology / School-Based Settings / Normal Language Processing / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Clinical Forum: Oral Communication in Children With Cochlear Implants
Clinical Forum   |   July 01, 2002
Factors Affecting the Development of Speech, Language, and Literacy in Children With Early Cochlear Implantation
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, July 2002, Vol. 33, 172-183. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2002/015)
History: Received October 28, 2001 , Accepted February 27, 2002
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, July 2002, Vol. 33, 172-183. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2002/015)
History: Received October 28, 2001; Accepted February 27, 2002

Purpose: This study investigated factors contributing to auditory, speech, language, and reading outcomes in children with prelingual deafness after 4–6 years of multichannel cochlear implant use. The analysis controlled for the effects of child, family, and implant characteristics so that educational factors most conducive to maximum implant benefit could be identified.

Method: The sample included 136 8- and 9-year-old children from across the United States and Canada who were implanted by age 5 with the Nucleus 22-channel implant. Type and amount of educational intervention since implantation constituted the independent variables. The dependent variable was performance on a battery of tests of speech perception, speech production, language, and reading administered 4–6 years postimplant. Characteristics of the child, the family, and the implant itself constituted intervening variables. A series of multiple regression analyses determined the amount of variance in each outcome accounted for by the intervening variables and the amount of additional variance attributable to independent variables.

Results: Characteristics of the child and the family (primarily nonverbal IQ) accounted for approximately 20% of the variance in postimplant outcome. An additional 24% was accounted for by implant characteristics and 12% by educational variables, particularly oral communication mode.

Clinical Implications: Auditory, speech, language, and reading skills achieved 4–6 years after cochlear implantation were most strongly associated with nonverbal IQ, implant functioning, and use of an oral communication mode.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This study was supported by Grant No. DC03100 from the National Institute on Deafness and other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to the Central Institute for the Deaf (CID). We gratefully acknowledge the families of children with implants from across the United States and Canada who enthusiastically participated in this study, as well as the staff of Cochlear Corporation and implant centers across the United States and Canada for their role in disseminating information about the study to potential participants. Michael J. Strube, PhD, conducted the statistical analysis. Data collection and preparation was coordinated by Christine Brenner, MS. Other investigators who participated in designing and implementing the test battery include (in alphabetical order) Jean Moog, MS, from the Moog Center for Deaf Education; Johanna Nicholas, PhD, from CID; Allison Sedey, PhD, from the University of Colorado at Boulder; Emily Tobey, PhD, from the Callier Center at the University of Texas at Dallas; Nancy Tye-Murray, PhD, from CID; and Rosalie Uchanski, PhD, from CID.
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