Estimating the Risk of Future Reading Difficulties in Kindergarten Children A Research-Based Model and Its Clinical Implementation Research Article
EDITOR'S AWARD
Research Article  |   January 01, 2001
Estimating the Risk of Future Reading Difficulties in Kindergarten Children
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Hugh W. Catts, Catts, PhD
    Department of Speech-Language-Hearing, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045
  • Marc E. Fey
    University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City
  • Xuyang Zhang
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • J. Bruce Tomblin
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Contact author: Hugh W. Catts, PhD, Department of Speech-Language-Hearing, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045.
    Contact author: Hugh W. Catts, PhD, Department of Speech-Language-Hearing, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045.×
  • Corresponding author: e-mail: pprelock@zoo.uvm.edu
Article Information
Development / Language Disorders / Reading & Writing Disorders / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Research Articles
Research Article   |   January 01, 2001
Estimating the Risk of Future Reading Difficulties in Kindergarten Children
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, January 2001, Vol. 32, 38-50. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2001/004)
History: Received May 24, 2000 , Accepted July 12, 2000
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, January 2001, Vol. 32, 38-50. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2001/004)
History: Received May 24, 2000; Accepted July 12, 2000
Web of Science® Times Cited: 212

Purpose: Speech-language pathologists have the skills and knowledge needed to play an important role in the early identification of children who are at risk for reading difficulties. Whereas research has identified language and other factors that may be predictive of future reading problems, studies have not provided the statistical models and classification data needed for the implementation of early identification programs. In this paper, we report the results of a longitudinal study that examined kindergarten predictors of second-grade reading outcome.

Method: Six hundred and four children were given a battery of language, early literacy, and nonverbal cognitive measures in kindergarten as part of an epidemiologic study of language impairments in children. Follow-up testing of reading achievement was completed in second grade. Participants were divided into those children with and without reading difficulties.

Results: Findings indicated that five kindergarten variables (letter identification, sentence imitation, phonological awareness, rapid naming, and mother’s education) uniquely predicted reading outcome in second grade.

Clinical Implications: A logistic regression formula and classification data based on these results are provided. Suggestions are offered concerning how this information could be used in an early identification and intervention program for children who are at risk for reading difficulties.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The research conducted for this report was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (1-P50-DC02726-04). The completion of this work was aided considerably by a valuable research team comprising the following: Paula Buckwalter, Marlea O’Brien, Connie Ferguson, Jodi Schwartz, and Amy Kunde.
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