Invented Spelling Developmental Patterns in Kindergarten Children and Guidelines for Early Literacy Intervention Research Article
Research Article  |   October 01, 1997
Invented Spelling
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Linda J. Lombardino
    University of Florida, Gainesville
  • Tara Bedford
    Hillsborough County Public Schools, Tampa, FL
  • Christine Fortier
    Munroe Regional Medical Center, Ocala, FL
  • Jennifer Carter
    Cedar Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA
  • John Brandi
    Parsippany Schools, Parsippany, NJ
  • Contact author: Linda J. Lombardino, Department of Communication Processes and Disorders, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.
    Contact author: Linda J. Lombardino, Department of Communication Processes and Disorders, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.×
  • Corresponding author: e-mail: llombard@cpd.ufl.edu
Article Information
Development / Normal Language Processing / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Research Article
Research Article   |   October 01, 1997
Invented Spelling
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, October 1997, Vol. 28, 333-343. doi:10.1044/0161-1461.2804.333
History: Received July 31, 1995 , Accepted October 17, 1996
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, October 1997, Vol. 28, 333-343. doi:10.1044/0161-1461.2804.333
History: Received July 31, 1995; Accepted October 17, 1996

Types and distributions of spelling patterns were identified in the invented spelling samples of 100 children in the second semester of their kindergarten year. Invented spellings were studied because they provide a valid measure of children’s phonemic awareness in print—a skill that is highly correlated with reading success in the early stages of literacy acquisition. The subjects’ spelling errors were used to develop a taxonomy of 10 invented spelling patterns and 21 response types that characterized the children’s most frequently occurring spellings of graphemes targeted for analysis in 12 words. The acquisition of spelling patterns was examined by dividing the children into three groups based on the phonemic accuracy of their spellings on a pre-readirng instrument. A developmental ordering of spelling patterns is presented and relationships among phonological awareness, spelling, and reading are discussed as they are relevant to speech-language pathologists treating children who are at risk for reading disabilities.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors wish to thank Darrell Morris for creating the ERSI and for encouraging us to use it for clinical research; Frank DeFillipo, Carol Sarisky, and Ann Montgomery for their assistance with data collection; and Sarah Ahmed for her editorial comments.
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