Phonological Treatment Efficacy and Developmental Norms The efficacy of teaching sounds in developmental sequence as defined by age norms was evaluated in two independent investigations. Study I was a within-subject evaluation using an alternating treatments design, with three children each receiving treatment on one early-acquired and one later-acquired phoneme relative to chronological age. Study II was ... Research Article
EDITOR'S AWARD
Research Article  |   July 01, 1996
Phonological Treatment Efficacy and Developmental Norms
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Judith A. Gierut
    Indiana University, Bloomington
    Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405
  • Michele L. Morrisette
    Indiana University, Bloomington
  • Mary T. Hughes
    Indiana University, Bloomington
  • Susan Rowland
    Indiana University, Bloomington
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosody / Research Articles
Research Article   |   July 01, 1996
Phonological Treatment Efficacy and Developmental Norms
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, July 1996, Vol. 27, 215-230. doi:10.1044/0161-1461.2703.215
History: Received August 10, 1994 , Accepted July 11, 1995
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, July 1996, Vol. 27, 215-230. doi:10.1044/0161-1461.2703.215
History: Received August 10, 1994; Accepted July 11, 1995

The efficacy of teaching sounds in developmental sequence as defined by age norms was evaluated in two independent investigations. Study I was a within-subject evaluation using an alternating treatments design, with three children each receiving treatment on one early-acquired and one later-acquired phoneme relative to chronological age. Study II was an across-subject evaluation involving six children in a staggered multiple baseline paradigm, whereby three subjects were each taught one early-acquired sound and three other subjects were taught one later-acquired sound relative to chronological age. Phonological change was measured on probes of sounds excluded from each child's phonemic inventory.

General results indicated that: (a) quantitatively, change in treated phonemes and manner classes was equivocal following treatment of early-acquired and later-acquired phonemes; (b) qualitatively, the onset of change was immediate following treatment of later-acquired phonemes, but delayed following treatment of early-acquired phonemes; and (c) treatment of later-acquired phonemes led to system-wide changes in untreated sound classes, whereas treatment of early-acquired phonemes did not. These findings were considered relative to clinical intervention and theories of phonological acquisition.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This research was supported in part by grants to Indiana University from the National Institutes of Health, DC 00433, DC 01694, DC 00076, and DC 00012. I would like to thank Bonnie Brinton, Dan Dinnsen, Marc Fey, Carol Stoel-Gammon, Ann Tyler, and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments. Several students assisted with aspects of this research: Elizabeth Connell Anttonen, Tatia Friet, Jennifer Huljak, Heidi Neumann, Susan Roy, Christina Simmerman, and Holly Storkel.
Portions of this paper were presented at the 1992 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Convention in San Antonio, TX, and the 1994 Symposium of the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in New Orleans, LA.
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