Reading Trajectories of Children With Language Difficulties From Preschool Through Fifth Grade Purpose The current work examined which theory of reading development, the cumulative reading trajectory or the compensatory trajectory of development, most accurately represents the reading trajectories of children with language difficulties (LD) relative to their peers with typical language (TL) skills. Specifically, initial levels of reading skills, overall rate of ... Research Article
Research Article  |   October 01, 2008
Reading Trajectories of Children With Language Difficulties From Preschool Through Fifth Grade
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Lori E. Skibbe
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
  • Kevin J. Grimm
    University of California, Davis
  • Tina L. Stanton-Chapman
    University of Virginia, Charlottesville
  • Laura M. Justice
    Ohio State University, Columbus
  • Khara L. Pence
    University of Virginia
  • Ryan P. Bowles
    Michigan State University, East Lansing
  • Contact author: Lori Skibbe, Department of Psychology, 530 Church Street, Room 1044, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1043. E-mail: skibbe@umich.edu.
Article Information
Development / School-Based Settings / Research Articles
Research Article   |   October 01, 2008
Reading Trajectories of Children With Language Difficulties From Preschool Through Fifth Grade
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, October 2008, Vol. 39, 475-486. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2008/07-0016)
History: Received March 9, 2007 , Revised October 9, 2007 , Accepted March 3, 2008
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, October 2008, Vol. 39, 475-486. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2008/07-0016)
History: Received March 9, 2007; Revised October 9, 2007; Accepted March 3, 2008
Web of Science® Times Cited: 31

Purpose The current work examined which theory of reading development, the cumulative reading trajectory or the compensatory trajectory of development, most accurately represents the reading trajectories of children with language difficulties (LD) relative to their peers with typical language (TL) skills. Specifically, initial levels of reading skills, overall rate of growth, and patterns of growth were examined.

Method Children were classified according to whether or not they exhibited LD at 54 months of age (LD n = 145; TL n = 653), using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development’s Early Child Care Research Network (see NICHD, 1993). A latent shape growth curve model was used to model reading skills at 4 time points from preschool through fifth grade.

Results In comparison to children with TL, children with LD showed lower reading skills in preschool, but their overall reading growth was faster. All children developed the skills associated with reading more rapidly at earlier ages compared to later ages. Children with LD continued to exhibit reading skills that were substantially lower than those of children with TL during fifth grade.

Conclusion Results supported the compensatory trajectory of development. Speech-language pathologists are encouraged to adopt evidence-based practices in order to boost reading outcomes for children with LD beginning in preschool.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We gratefully acknowledge the support provided by Grant R305B04049 from the Institute of Education Sciences at the U.S. Department of Education to support the preparation of this work. The database used in this article was supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). The contents do not necessarily represent the positions or policies of NICHD, and endorsement by the federal government should not be assumed.
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