An Investigation of Sex-Bias in Classroom Teachers' Speech and Language Referrals Kindergarten through sixth grade classroom teachers in four school districts completed questionnaires designed to determine whether they would be more likely to refer a boy than a girl with an identical communication disorder. The teachers were found to be equally likely to refer a girl as a boy who presented ... Research Article
Research Article  |   July 01, 1980
An Investigation of Sex-Bias in Classroom Teachers' Speech and Language Referrals
 
Author Notes
  • Ellen-Marie Silverman and Katherine Van Opens are affiliated with Marquette University. Requests for reprints may be sent to Silverman at the College of Speech, Marquette University, 619 North 16th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233.
    Ellen-Marie Silverman and Katherine Van Opens are affiliated with Marquette University. Requests for reprints may be sent to Silverman at the College of Speech, Marquette University, 619 North 16th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233.×
Article Information
Research Articles
Research Article   |   July 01, 1980
An Investigation of Sex-Bias in Classroom Teachers' Speech and Language Referrals
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, July 1980, Vol. 11, 169-174. doi:10.1044/0161-1461.1103.169
History: Received June 1, 1979 , Accepted November 9, 1979
 
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, July 1980, Vol. 11, 169-174. doi:10.1044/0161-1461.1103.169
History: Received June 1, 1979; Accepted November 9, 1979

Kindergarten through sixth grade classroom teachers in four school districts completed questionnaires designed to determine whether they would be more likely to refer a boy than a girl with an identical communication disorder. The teachers were found to be equally likely to refer a girl as a boy who presented a disorder of articulation, language, or voice, but they were more likely to refer a boy for speech-language remediation who presented the disorder of stuttering. The tendency for the teachers to allow the sex of a child to influence their likelihood of referral for stuttering remediation, to overlook a sizeable percentage of children with chronic voice disorders, and to be somewhat inaccurate generally in their referrals suggests that teacher referrals are best used as an adjunct to screening rather than as a primary procedure to locate children with communication disorders.

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